Biology Outline Essay

Biology | |2013 Subject Outline | |Stage 1 and Stage 2 | contents INTRODUCTION1 Purposes of the SACE1 Subject Description1 Capabilities2 Literacy in Biology3 Numeracy in Biology4 Ethical Study and Research4 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Knowledge, Cultures, and Perspectives5 Stage 1 Biology Learning Scope and Requirements8 Learning Requirements8 Biological Investigation Skills8 Content14 Assessment Scope and Requirements16

Evidence of Learning16 Assessment Design Criteria16 School Assessment18 Performance Standards20 Assessment Integrity24 Support Materials25 Subject-specific Advice25 Advice on Ethical Study and Research25 Stage 2 Biology Learning Scope and Requirements28 Learning Requirements28 Biological Investigation Skills28 Content34 Assessment Scope and Requirements49 Evidence of Learning49 Assessment Design Criteria49 School Assessment51 External Assessment53 Performance Standards53 Assessment Integrity58 Support Materials59 Subject-specific Advice59 Advice on Ethical Study and Research59

INTRODUCTION PURPOSES OF THE SACE THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN CERTIFICATE OF EDUCATION (SACE) IS DESIGNED TO ENABLE STUDENTS TO: • develop the capabilities to live, learn, work, and participate successfully in a changing world • plan and engage in a range of challenging, achievable, and manageable learning experiences, taking into account their goals and abilities • build their knowledge, skills, and understanding in a variety of contexts, for example, schools, workplaces, and training and community organisations • gain credit for their learning achievements against performance standards.

SUBJECT DESCRIPTION BIOLOGY MAY BE UNDERTAKEN AS A 10-CREDIT SUBJECT OR A 20-CREDIT SUBJECT AT STAGE 1, AND AS A 20-CREDIT SUBJECT AT STAGE 2. Learning and working in Biology enable us to understand the structure and function of living things and how these living things interact with other members of their own species, with other species, and with their environments. In Biology, students learn about the cellular and overall structures and functions of a range of organisms, such as how those organisms gain nutrition and reproduce and how they live in a variety of ecological habitats.

In Biology, students have the opportunity to engage with the work of classical and modern biologists and to join in and initiate debates about how biology impacts on our lives, society, and the environment. Through Biology, students increase their own knowledge of biological principles and concepts; they also develop the ability to use that knowledge to identify questions, issues, opportunities, and challenges and to acquire new knowledge through their own investigations.

Students develop the skills and abilities to explain biological phenomena and to draw evidence-based conclusions from investigations of biology-related issues. In this way students develop biological literacy skills that will assist them in the pursuit of various career pathways. Students of Biology are better informed about the ways in which daily life is affected by biological phenomena, which contributes to their ability to live and work as reflective citizens.

In all biological undertakings, research scientists and people engaged in recreation and career pathways use an inquiry approach in their pursuits. They gather information, evaluate evidence, synthesise new knowledge, and apply their learning to related ideas and issues. Students undertaking Biology apply these approaches to develop their knowledge, skills, and understanding of biology. Capabilities THE AIM OF THE SACE IS TO DEVELOP WELL-ROUNDED, CAPABLE YOUNG PEOPLE WHO CAN MAKE THE MOST OF THEIR POTENTIAL.

THE CAPABILITIES INCLUDE THE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ESSENTIAL FOR PEOPLE TO ACT IN EFFECTIVE AND SUCCESSFUL WAYS. The five capabilities that have been identified are: • communication • citizenship • personal development • work • learning. The capabilities enable students to make connections in their learning within and across subjects in a wide range of contexts. The capabilities for learning and communication are the focus of the learning requirements, supporting students’ development of skills in working scientifically to acquire, understand, and communicate knowledge of biology.

Through the capabilities for citizenship and work, students develop an appreciation of the issues and ideas described in the content and learn to apply science in a broad, holistic manner. The capability for personal development is reflected in the development of students’ opinions on issues and their appreciation of the role of biology in the world. Through the capability for work, students develop skills in problem-solving and critical thinking that are applicable to employability in a range of career pathways. Communication

In this subject, students develop their capability for communication by, for example: • accessing, using, and presenting information and ideas in different formats, using the conventions and terminology of biology • using appropriate communication approaches for specific audiences and for a range of purposes • acquiring skills of literacy and numeracy in biology • using information and communication technologies to gather, sort, analyse, and display data and information • constructing knowledge through communication with others • using various communication strategies for cooperative and independent learning.

Citizenship In this subject, students develop their capability for citizenship by, for example: • understanding diverse local and global cultural perspectives and values related to biological concepts, based on scientific evidence • gaining an awareness and understanding of preferred futures for social and environmental sustainability • using biological knowledge, processes, and evidence to support responsible social, political, economic, and legal participation in community issues • working ethically with others and in the environment.

Personal Development In this subject, students develop their capability for personal development by, for example: • making decisions about personal futures on the basis of an understanding of biology and its role in the world • understanding health and well-being through biology • appreciating the place of biology in the world • gaining skills of persistence, reflection, and evaluation through the study of biology • learning to appreciate risk and its consequences for decision-making. Work

In this subject, students develop their capability for work by, for example: • acquiring skills and competencies, including problem-solving, critical thinking, and numeracy skills, that are applicable to a range of career pathways, including those that are biology based • participating safely and scientifically in school, work, and community life • working individually and as part of a team • learning to deal with a world changing at an increasing rate because of scientific development. Learning In this subject, students develop their capability for learning by, for example: • acquiring skills in accessing, organising, and using (with pportunities for analysing and interpreting) biological data, and in synthesising information into knowledge • responding to challenges in relation to biological learning and issues • practising critical, creative, innovative, and reflective thinking, inquiry, and problem-solving • applying biological knowledge and skills • understanding how the body of biological knowledge changes over time and is influenced by people, including research biologists, the media, society, and governments. Literacy in biology STUDENTS HAVE OPPORTUNITIES TO DEVELOP SPECIFIC LITERACY SKILLS THROUGH THEIR LEARNING IN BIOLOGY.

THESE SKILLS ENABLE STUDENTS TO: • communicate within and beyond the biology community, using the terminology and conventions of biology • access, critically read, and extract information from texts with relevance to biology • select and use formats appropriate to a purpose and an audience • use a range of communication forms, such as web-based presentations, visual media, and written and oral texts • acknowledge sources of information appropriately. Numeracy in Biology STUDENTS HAVE OPPORTUNITIES TO DEVELOP SPECIFIC NUMERACY SKILLS THROUGH THEIR LEARNING IN BIOLOGY.

THESE SKILLS ENABLE STUDENTS TO: • use measurement tools and units appropriate to the task • display and manipulate data, using appropriate scientific conventions • evaluate and interpret data • critically evaluate the findings and/or recommendations of a study based on the numerical evidence presented • predict trends and/or outcomes from data collected • analyse data in order to supply evidence for or against a given proposal. Ethical Study and Research ADVICE FOR STUDENTS AND TEACHERS ON ETHICAL STUDY AND RESEARCH PRACTICES IS AVAILABLE IN THE GUIDELINES ON THE ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH IN THE SACE ON THE SACE WEBSITE (WWW.

SACE. SA. EDU. AU). Keeping live animals in an educational setting requires permission from the relevant Animal Ethics Committee. Permission to dissect animals must be obtained in writing from these committees. For Department of Education and Child Develoment (DECD) schools, information can be obtained from the DECD Animal Ethics website (www. decd. sa. gov. au/animalethics). The Animal Ethics Committee for non-government schools is a collaboration between Catholic Education South Australia and the Association of Independent Schools of South Australia.

Teachers are advised to contact their school sector for advice about the keeping and use of animals for educational purposes. Occupational Health, Safety, and Welfare The handling of live animals, pathogens, and a range of chemicals and equipment requires appropriate occupational health, safety, and welfare procedures. Information about these procedures is available from applicable school sectors. Safety Practices in the Laboratory The following safety practices must be observed in all laboratory work: • Use equipment only under the direction and supervision of a teacher or other qualified person. Follow safety procedures when preparing or manipulating apparatus. • Use appropriate safety gear when preparing or manipulating apparatus. ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER KNOWLEDGE, CULTURES, AND PERSPECTIVES IN PARTNERSHIP WITH ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER COMMUNITIES, AND SCHOOLS AND SCHOOL SECTORS, THE SACE BOARD OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA SUPPORTS THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-QUALITY LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT DESIGN THAT RESPECTS THE DIVERSE KNOWLEDGE, CULTURES, AND PERSPECTIVES OF INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIANS.

The SACE Board encourages teachers to include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledge and perspectives in the design, delivery, and assessment of teaching and learning programs by: • providing opportunities in SACE subjects for students to learn about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories, cultures, and contemporary experiences • recognising and respecting the significant contribution of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to Australian society • drawing students’ attention to the value of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledge and perspectives from the past and the present • promoting the use of culturally appropriate protocols when engaging with and learning from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities. Stage 1 Biology | LEARNING SCOPE AND REQUIREMENTS LEARNING REQUIREMENTS THE LEARNING REQUIREMENTS SUMMARISE THE KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, AND UNDERSTANDING THAT STUDENTS ARE EXPECTED TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE THROUGH THEIR LEARNING. In this subject, students are expected to: 1. identify and formulate questions, hypotheses, concepts, and purposes that guide biological investigations 2. design and conduct individual and collaborative biological investigations 3. manipulate apparatus and use technological tools and numeracy skills to obtain, represent, analyse, interpret, and evaluate data and observations from biological investigations 4. elect and critically evaluate biological evidence from different sources and present informed conclusions and personal views on social, ethical, and environmental issues 5. communicate their knowledge and understanding of biological concepts, using appropriate biological terms and conventions 6. demonstrate and apply biological knowledge and understanding of concepts and interrelationships to a range of contexts and problems, including by presenting alternative explanations. These learning requirements form the basis of the: • learning scope • evidence of learning that students provide • assessment design criteria • levels of achievement described in the performance standards. Biological Investigation Skills

CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING IN STAGE 1 BIOLOGY ARE SUPPORTED THROUGH BIOLOGICAL INQUIRY AND COMMUNICATION ABOUT BIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA. STUDENTS UNDERTAKE BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS, BOTH PRACTICAL AND ISSUES BASED, TO DEVELOP THEIR OWN KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING. DATA AND INFORMATION, INCLUDING OBSERVATIONS, FROM THESE INVESTIGATIONS PROVIDE THE EVIDENCE ON WHICH DECISIONS ARE MADE. Biological investigations are carried out by students through individual and collaborative activities. Practical Investigations Through a range of activities and experimentation, practical investigations support students to collect and interpret their own data.

In practical investigations, students develop and select investigable questions and measurable hypotheses, collect data using appropriate equipment and measurement skills, display and analyse data, and present conclusions appropriate to the initial question or hypothesis. They learn to critically evaluate the outcomes of practical investigations and consider a range of explanations for their observations. They develop biological literacy and numeracy skills by questioning, displaying, and analysing data, and by communicating outcomes. Experiments are a part of practical investigations in Stage 1 Biology. Issues Investigations In issues investigations, students use information from different sources, which may include primary source data they generate themselves.

They develop questions for investigation, undertake procedures, and collect evidence to inform their investigations. They learn to think critically and reflectively when relating their evidence to the issue under investigation. They describe the different views people hold on an issue, based on their evidence. Teachers assist students to develop a framework within which an investigation is undertaken. Frameworks developed around the assessment design criteria enable students to present the most suitable evidence of their learning. Communication A vast amount of information is available on any topic in biology, and there are many ways of obtaining that information.

It is important therefore to learn and practise the techniques for obtaining and evaluating information. In biological investigations it is important that methods and results are open to scrutiny. This requires the clear and accurate communication of the details of an investigation to other people. In this subject, communication skills may be assessed through oral presentations and through essays on biological issues, reports of practical investigations, and other written assignments. Students develop their literacy skills as they acquire knowledge of biological terminology and its appropriate application, gain understanding of the contextual uses of data and concepts, and critically analyse information from different sources. Skills

The ways in which biological investigation skills are expressed are set out in the following table on intended student learning. |Key Ideas |Intended Student Learning | |Students should know and understand the following: |Students should provide evidence that they are able to do | | |the following: | |Purposes of Investigations | | |Investigations have a clearly defined purpose. |State the purpose of the investigation. | |Investigations are based on existing information or issues. For a given topic, state the key ideas or issues relevant to| |Before searching for information it is necessary to have a |the information required, and identify the type of resource | |clear idea of the information required, the level of detail |that might provide the information. | |needed, and the appropriate facilities for extracting the | | |information. | | |Before undertaking an information search it is necessary to |Identify key search words and phrases for a given topic. | |be familiar with search techniques, the way in which the |Use an information source (e. g. library catalogue, CD-ROM, | |information is structured, and the means of retrieving the |or the Internet) to obtain information about a topic. | |information. | |Questions and Hypotheses | | |Investigable questions guide investigations on biological |Formulate a question for an investigation based on a | |issues. |biological issue. | |Investigations are often designed to investigate questions |Suggest possible investigations to test the question. | |and to develop possible solutions to those questions. | | |Experiments may be used to test hypotheses. |State a testable hypothesis, where appropriate. | |Designing

Investigations and Experiments | | |Design | | |Scientific inquiry involves designing procedures, including |Design and carry out investigations to explore posed | |practical investigations based on the scientific method or |questions or hypotheses, using the scientific method. | |observations made in the field, to investigate questions. |Design and carry out experiments to investigate a biological| |Designing an investigation involves identifying: |issue. |what needs to be observed |Record and analyse observations. | |the measurements that need to be taken | | |the techniques that need to be used | | |the apparatus or measuring instruments needed. | | |Every step in a practical or issues investigation serves a |Describe the steps of an investigation. | |purpose. |Draw or interpret diagrams of the apparatus used in an | | |experiment. |Variables | | |Many practical investigations involve deliberately changing |Identify the variables in a practical investigation. | |one quantity and determining the effect on another quantity. | | |These quantities are referred to as ‘variables’. | | |The quantity being deliberately changed is called the |Classify the variables in a practical investigation as | |‘independent variable’. The quantity that changes as a |independent or dependent. | |result is called the ‘dependent variable’. | |Other factors are held constant, if possible, throughout a |Identify any factors that are deliberately held constant | |practical investigation. |throughout a practical investigation. | |Conducting Investigations | | |Procedures | | |Practical investigations require a particular set of actions|Follow instructions accurately and safely. | |to be carried out in a well-defined order. | |Safety and Ethics | | |Ethical practices must be followed when conducting practical|Work ethically with animals. | |and issues investigations. |Maintain confidentiality, report accurately, and acknowledge| | |the work of other people. | |Safety must be considered when conducting investigations. |Recognise hazards and work safely during an investigation. | |Many investigations involve the collaborative efforts of a |Negotiate procedures with the other members of the team. | |team. |Define the role of each member. | |Members of a team work together. |Perform the role of a team member. |Errors in Measurements | | |Measurements are affected by random and/or systematic |Identify sources of errors and uncertainty that may occur in| |errors. |an investigation. | |Random errors are present when there is scatter in the |Distinguish between random and systematic errors. | |measured values. Systematic errors are present when measured| | |values differ consistently from the true value. | | |Where applicable, increasing the number of samples minimises|Explain the importance of increasing the number of samples | |the effects of random errors and improves the reliability of|in a practical investigation. | |the data. | |Systematic errors can be identified and results verified by |Explain the importance of repeating a practical | |repeating an experiment using an alternative source of |investigation where possible. | |equipment and materials. | | |Precision, Reliability, and Accuracy | | |The reliability/precision of data collection is related to |Where possible, collect data using measurements that can be | |the reproducibility of the measurements. |reproduced consistently. | |Measurements are more reliable when there is less scatter in|Determine which of two or more sets of measurements is most | |the results. |reliable. |Reliability depends on the extent to which random errors are|Use averages or graphing as a means of detecting or | |minimised. |minimising the effects of random errors. | |The accuracy of an experimental value indicates how close |State which result of two or more experiments is most | |the result is to the true value and depends on the extent to|accurate, given the true value. | |which systematic errors are minimised. | | |The resolution of a measuring instrument is the smallest |Select an instrument of appropriate resolution for a | |increment measurable by the measuring instrument. |measurement. |The number of significant figures for a measurement is |Record and use measurements to an appropriate number of | |determined by the reproducibility of the measurement and the|significant figures. | |resolution of the measuring instrument. | | |Information and Data | | |Investigations involve evidence, which may be quantitative |Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative evidence. | |or qualitative. | | |Valid conclusions depend on gathering appropriate evidence. |In investigations, make and record careful and honest | | |observations and measurements. |Data can be more easily interpreted if presented in a |Present data in an appropriate tabular form. Include a | |well-structured table. |title, column headings showing the quantities measured and | | |units used, and the values observed or researched. | |Graphs are a useful way of displaying data. When a graph is |Plot a graph of dependent variable versus independent | |plotted, the independent variable (or a quantity derived |variable. Include a title, labelled axes, and appropriate | |from it) is plotted horizontally and the dependent variable |scales and units. | |(or a quantity derived from it) is plotted vertically. | |A line of best fit can show relationships between variables |Draw a line of best fit through a series of points on a | |in an experiment. |graph such that the plotted points are scattered evenly | | |above and below the line of best fit. | |Understanding of a topic, issue, or question is enhanced, |Obtain information from different sources. | |using information from different sources. | | |Information obtained must be critically examined for |Evaluate for bias, credibility, accuracy, and suitability | |accuracy and suitability for the purpose for which it was |the information obtained from a source. | |sought. | |The source of information must be recorded so that the |List the sources of information, using an appropriate | |information is accessible to others. |format. | |Interpretation and Evaluation | | |Careful observation in a practical investigation is |Describe a pattern observed in the results of an | |essential for analysis and for comparison with other |investigation. | |investigations. | | |The scatter of data points above and below the line of best |Using the scatter in the graphs of data from similar | |fit is probably due to random errors. |investigations, compare the random errors. |Subsequent investigations can be improved by the critical |Analyse and evaluate information from a series of | |evaluation of the procedure and results. |observations or an investigation, and suggest improvements | | |or indicate the additional information needed. | |A conclusion should be written at the end of each |Write a conclusion that is based on the results of an | |investigation. |investigation and related to the question posed and the | | |purpose of, or the hypothesis for, the investigation. |Alternative Views | | |The evidence collected through investigations may be |Describe a range of alternative interpretations or points of| |interpreted in a variety of ways. |view based on evidence and state reasons for the selection | | |of the preferred interpretation. | |Arguments can be presented for and against an issue on the |Construct for-and-against arguments on an issue based on | |basis of information selected from different sources. |information gathered from different sources. |Personal views must be substantiated by the evidence |Present a justification of, or evidence for, a personal | |collected through an investigation. |view. | |Communication | | |Communication in biology uses specific terminology, |Use biological terminology, conventions, and symbols that | |conventions, and symbols. |are appropriate for the purpose of the communication. | |Communication for different audiences requires the use of a |Select the appropriate format for a particular audience. | |format suitable for the purpose. | |All communication needs to be well structured, well |Present communications (oral, written, and multimedia) | |organised, and clearly presented. |clearly and logically, using biological concepts appropriate| | |for the audience. | |Written reports of investigations should state what was done|Write a report of an investigation that includes a | |and why, the results, the analysis and interpretation of the|description of its purpose and procedure, results, analysis,| |results, and the conclusions drawn from the results. |interpretation, and conclusions. | |Sufficient information should be included to enable the | | |procedure to be repeated by others. | |Multimedia presentations use minimal language and a variety |Use concise language and graphics to present information. | |of graphics to present an argument. | | Content STAGE 1 BIOLOGY MAY BE UNDERTAKEN AS A 10-CREDIT SUBJECT OR A 20-CREDIT SUBJECT. The design and content of teaching and learning programs are determined at the school level. In designing a learning program in Biology it is important to decide how many topics should be studied. Requiring students to take only a few topics provides opportunities to acquire knowledge at greater depth. Stage 1 biology comprises the following areas of study: • Area of Study 1: Cellular Biology Area of Study 2: Physiology • Area of Study 3: Ecology. For a 10-credit subject, topics from at least two of the areas of study should be incorporated. If a school offers two 10-credit subjects, there should be opportunities for students to study topics from all three areas of study. For a 20-credit subject, there should be opportunities for students to study topics from all three areas of study. A program based on the areas of study allows students to develop an understanding of the nature of living things, as well as of the interactions of those living things with members of the same species, with members of other species, and with the physical environment.

Especially through practical investigations, such a program also allows an inquiry approach to learning through observation, speculation, prediction, experimentation, analysis, communication (sharing), and confirmation (repetition), which provides confidence in current knowledge. The social, economic, and ethical consequences of disturbing natural systems, deliberately or inadvertently, should be explored. Area of Study 1: Cellular Biology One of the unifying concepts of biology is that all living organisms are composed of cells and cell products. Some organisms (e. g. bacteria and some protists) are unicellular, while others are multicellular and contain many different types of cells. A study of cellular biology may involve investigating cell structure (including subcellular components) and metabolic processes. It may focus on cell requirements, cell products, cellular reproduction, or intercellular communication.

The study of cellular biology is fundamental to understanding the treatment of disease and has a significant role in biotechnological applications, both ancient and modern. Possible topics could include investigation of the: • relationship between cell structure and function • cellular basis of infectious disease • cellular basis of non-infectious disease (e. g. cancer or nutrient deficiency) • uses of cells in biotechnology (e. g. winemaking, tissue culture, or cloning) • molecular basis of inheritance • ethical issues related to cellular biology (e. g. stem cell research, in-vitro fertilisation, genetic engineering, cloning, biological warfare, or amniocentesis). Area of Study 2: Physiology Physiology is the study of the structure and function of living organisms.

In most organisms, cells are aggregated into tissues and organs, forming complex systems. These systems carry out specialised functions such as photosynthesis, digestion, and transport. A study of physiology may focus on comparisons between the structures and functions of different organisms or on applications of physiology to agricultural production. Treatments of and therapeutic solutions for lifestyle diseases have been developed through an understanding of physiology. Many ethical issues involve knowledge of physiology (e. g. medical treatment, organ donation, illicit drug use, and the use of herbicides). Possible topics could include the investigation of: • an aspect of human physiology the different ways in which organisms obtain energy • the different methods organisms use for transportation • the structural adaptations of organisms • the use of aquaculture in boosting food production • issues related to organ donation • the impact of human choices in relation to lifestyle diseases • the behaviour of organisms. Area of Study 3: Ecology Ecology is the study of the interactions of organisms with each other and the abiotic environment. A study of an ecosystem could involve examining how the distribution and abundance of organisms in a community are affected by factors such as temperature, light, rainfall, the presence of other organisms, and soil type.

The impact of human activities has profoundly changed many natural ecosystems, often reducing biological diversity. Understanding of the role of biological diversity in maintaining the health of ecosystems has increased greatly in recent years. Possible topics could include investigation of: • the impact of human beings on a particular ecosystem • the growth of populations • the interactions of organisms in a marine ecosystem • the impact of farming on biodiversity • the structure of a specific community • the role of genetic engineering in agriculture • the origin and evolution of Australian flora and fauna • the importance of quarantine for Australian agriculture • phylogeny • the behaviour of organisms. • ASSESSMENT SCOPE AND REQUIREMENTS

ASSESSMENT AT STAGE 1 IS SCHOOL BASED. Teachers design a set of assessments that enable students to demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and understanding they have developed to meet the learning requirements of the subject. These assessments provide students’ evidence of learning. Evidence of Learning THE FOLLOWING ASSESSMENT TYPES ENABLE STUDENTS TO DEMONSTRATE THEIR LEARNING IN STAGE 1 BIOLOGY: • Assessment Type 1: Investigations Folio • Assessment Type 2: Skills and Applications Tasks. For a 10-credit subject, students should provide evidence of their learning through four or five assessments, at least one of which involves collaborative work.

Each assessment type should have a weighting of at least 20%. Students undertake: • at least one practical investigation and at least one issues investigation for the folio • at least one skills and applications task. For a 20-credit subject, students should provide evidence of their learning through eight to ten assessments, at least one of which involves collaborative work. Each assessment type should have a weighting of at least 20%. Students undertake: • at least two practical investigations and at least two issues investigations for the folio • at least two skills and applications tasks. Students should be provided with assessment opportunities in a range of settings (e. g. lassroom, laboratory, and field) that are supervised and/or verified. Assessment Design Criteria THE ASSESSMENT DESIGN CRITERIA ARE BASED ON THE LEARNING REQUIREMENTS AND ARE USED BY TEACHERS TO: • clarify for the student what he or she needs to learn • design opportunities for the student to provide evidence of his or her learning at the highest possible level of achievement. The assessment design criteria consist of specific features that: • students should demonstrate in their learning • teachers look for as evidence that students have met the learning requirements. For this subject the assessment design criteria are: • investigation • analysis and evaluation • application • knowledge and understanding.

The specific features of these criteria are listed below. The set of assessments, as a whole, must give students opportunities to demonstrate each of the specific features by the completion of study of the subject. Investigation The specific features are as follows: I1Design of a biological investigation. I2Selection and acknowledgment of information about biology and issues in biology from different sources. I3Manipulation of apparatus and technological tools to implement safe and ethical investigation procedures. I4The obtaining, recording, and display of findings of investigations, using appropriate conventions and formats. Analysis and Evaluation

The specific features are as follows: AE1Analysis of data and concepts and their connections, to formulate conclusions and make relevant predictions. AE2Evaluation of procedures, with suggestions for improvements. Application The specific features are as follows: A1Application of biological concepts and evidence from investigations to solve problems in new and familiar contexts. A2Use of appropriate biological terms, conventions, formulae, and equations. A3Demonstration of skills in individual and collaborative work. Knowledge and Understanding The specific features are as follows: KU1Demonstration of knowledge and understanding of biological concepts.

KU2Use of knowledge of biology to understand and explain social or environmental issues. KU3Communication of knowledge and understanding of biology in different formats. School Assessment ASSESSMENT TYPE 1: INVESTIGATIONS FOLIO For a 10-credit subject, students undertake at least one practical investigation and at least one issues investigation to include in the folio. For a 20-credit subject, students undertake at least two practical investigations and at least two issues investigations to include in the folio. Students inquire into aspects of biology through practical discovery and data analysis, or by selecting, analysing, and interpreting information.

As students design and carry out investigations, they learn to pose questions about the world around them. They use their observations and gather data and information to generate evidence, which enables them to construct reasonable explanations in response to these questions and to develop a better understanding of themselves and their environment. Practical Investigations Students formulate questions and hypotheses, design and conduct practical investigations, identify variables, collect, analyse, and interpret data, evaluate results, draw conclusions, and communicate their knowledge and understanding of concepts. These processes may occur in one assessment or in separate assessments.

Practical investigations may be conducted individually or collaboratively, but each student presents an individual report. Suggested formats for presentation of a practical investigation report include: • a written report • a multimedia product. Issues Investigations Students investigate aspects of biology that affect themselves, society, or the environment. They access information from different sources, analyse their findings, critically evaluate the evidence, and develop and explain their own conclusions from the investigation. Suggested formats for presentation of an issues investigation report include: • an individual or collaborative oral presentation • a multimedia product.

An issues investigation should be a maximum of 750 words if written or a maximum of 5 minutes for an oral presentation, or the equivalent in multimedia form. For this assessment type, students provide evidence of their learning in relation to the following assessment design criteria: • investigation • analysis and evaluation • application • knowledge and understanding. Further information about conducting investigations can be found in the section on biological investigation skills. Assessment Type 2: Skills and Applications Tasks For a 10-credit subject, students undertake at least one skills and applications task. Students may undertake more than one skills and applications task, but at least one should be under the direct supervision of the teacher.

The supervised setting (e. g. classroom, laboratory, or field) should be appropriate to the task. For a 20-credit subject, students undertake at least two skills and applications tasks. Students may undertake more than two skills and applications tasks, but at least two should be under the direct supervision of the teacher. The supervised setting (e. g. classroom, laboratory, or field) should be appropriate to the task. Skills that could be assessed include using biological terms, conventions, and notations; demonstrating understanding; applying knowledge; graphing; analysing data and drawing conclusions; and designing an investigation to test a hypothesis.

Skills and applications tasks should be designed to enable students to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the key biological concepts and learning covered in the program, and to apply this knowledge to solve problems. Some of these problems could be defined in a practical, social, or environmental context. Students use appropriate biological terms and conventions to explain links between biological concepts. Skills and applications tasks may include: • a graphical skills exercise • a multimedia product • an oral presentation • a video or audio recording • participation in a debate • a demonstration • an extended response • a written assignment • a structured interview • an excursion report • a historical study • multiple-choice questions • short-answer questions • a response to text(s).

For this assessment type, students provide evidence of their learning in relation to the following assessment design criteria: • investigation • analysis and evaluation • application • knowledge and understanding. Performance Standards THE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS DESCRIBE FIVE LEVELS OF ACHIEVEMENT, A TO E. Each level of achievement describes the knowledge, skills, and understanding that teachers refer to in deciding, on the basis of the evidence provided, how well a student has demonstrated his or her learning. During the teaching and learning program the teacher gives students feedback on, and makes decisions about, the quality of their learning, with reference to the performance standards.

Students can also refer to the performance standards to identify the knowledge, skills, and understanding that they have demonstrated and those specific features that they still need to demonstrate to reach their highest possible level of achievement. At the student’s completion of study of a subject, the teacher makes a decision about the quality of the student’s learning by: • referring to the performance standards • taking into account the weighting given to each assessment type • assigning a subject grade between A and E. Teachers can use a SACE Board school assessment grade calculator to help them to assign the subject grade. The calculator is available on the SACE website (www. sace. sa. edu. au). Performance Standards for Stage 1 Biology |Investigation |Analysis and Evaluation |Application |Knowledge and Understanding | |B |Designs a well-considered and clear |Logically analyses data and their connections|Applies biological concepts and evidence from|Demonstrates some depth and breadth of | | |biological investigation. |with concepts, to formulate consistent |investigations to suggest solutions to |knowledge and understanding of a range of | | |Logically selects and appropriately |conclusions and mostly relevant predictions. |problems in new and familiar contexts. |biological concepts. | | |acknowledges information about biology and |Evaluates procedures and suggests some |Uses appropriate biological terms, |Uses knowledge of biology logically to | | |issues in biology from different sources. |appropriate improvements. conventions, formulae, and equations |understand and explain social or | | |Manipulates apparatus and technological tools| |effectively. |environmental issues. | | |carefully and mostly effectively to implement| |Applies mostly constructive and focused |Uses a variety of formats to communicate | | |organised, safe, and ethical investigation | |individual and collaborative work skills. |knowledge and understanding of biology | | |procedures. | | |coherently and effectively. | |Obtains, records, and displays findings of | | | | | |investigations, using appropriate conventions| | | | | |and formats mostly accurately and | | | | | |effectively. | | | | |C |Designs a considered and generally clear |Analyses data and their connections with |Applies biological concepts and evidence from|Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of a| | |biological investigation. concepts, to formulate generally appropriate |investigations to suggest some solutions to |general range of biological concepts. | | |Selects with some focus, and mostly |conclusions and make simple predictions, with|basic problems in new or familiar contexts. |Uses knowledge of biology with some logic to | | |appropriately acknowledges, information about|some relevance. |Uses generally appropriate biological terms, |understand and explain one or more social or | | |biology and issues in biology from different |Evaluates some procedures in biology and |conventions, formulae, and equations, with |environmental issues. | | |sources. suggests some improvements that are generally|some general effectiveness. |Uses different formats to communicate | | |Manipulates apparatus and technological tools|appropriate. |Applies generally constructive individual and|knowledge and understanding of biology, with | | |generally carefully and effectively to | |collaborative work skills. |some general effectiveness. | | |implement safe and ethical investigation | | | | | |procedures. | | | | |Obtains, records, and displays findings of | | | | | |investigations, using generally appropriate | | | | | |conventions and formats with some errors but | | | | | |generally accurately and effectively. | | | |D |Prepares the outline of a biological |Describes basic connections between some data|Applies some evidence to describe some basic |Demonstrates some basic knowledge and partial| | |investigation. |and concepts, and attempts to formulate a |problems and identify one or more simple |understanding of biological concepts. | | |Selects and may partly acknowledge one or |conclusion and make a simple prediction that |solutions, in familiar contexts. |Identifies and explains some biological | | |more sources of information about biology or |may be relevant. |Attempts to use some biological terms, |information that is relevant to one or more | | |an issue in biology. For some procedures, identifies improvements |conventions, formulae, and equations that may|social or environmental issues. | | |Uses apparatus and technological tools with |that may be made. |be appropriate. |Communicates basic information to others, | | |inconsistent care and effectiveness and | |Attempts individual work inconsistently, and |using one or more formats. | | |attempts to implement safe and ethical | |contributes superficially to aspects of | | | |investigation procedures. | |collaborative work. | | |Obtains, records, and displays findings of | | | | | |investigations, using conventions and formats| | | | | |inconsistently, with occasional accuracy and | | | | | |effectiveness. | | | | |E |Identifies a simple procedure for a |Attempts to connect data with concepts, |Identifies a basic problem and attempts to |Demonstrates some limited recognition and | | |biological investigation. |formulate a conclusion, and make a |identify a solution in a familiar context. |awareness of biological concepts. | |Identifies a source of information about |prediction. |Uses some biological terms or formulae. |Shows an emerging understanding that some | | |biology or an issue in biology. |Acknowledges the need for improvements in one|Shows emerging skills in individual and |biological information is relevant to social | | |Attempts to use apparatus and technological |or more procedures. |collaborative work. |or environmental issues. | | |tools with limited effectiveness or attention| | |Attempts to communicate information about | | |to safe or ethical investigation procedures. | |biology. | | |Attempts to record and display some | | | | | |descriptive information about an | | | | | |investigation, with limited accuracy or | | | | | |effectiveness. | | | assessment integrity THE SACE ASSURING ASSESSMENT INTEGRITY POLICY OUTLINES THE PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES THAT TEACHERS AND ASSESSORS FOLLOW TO ASSURE THE INTEGRITY OF STUDENT ASSESSMENTS. THIS POLICY IS AVAILABLE ON THE SACE WEBSITE (WWW. SACE. SA. EDU. AU) AS PART OF THE SACE POLICY FRAMEWORK. The SACE Board uses a range of quality assurance processes so that the grades awarded for student achievement in the school assessment are applied consistently and fairly against the performance standards for a subject, and are comparable across all schools.

Information and guidelines on quality assurance in assessment at Stage 1 are available on the SACE website (www. sace. sa. edu. au). SUPPORT MATERIALS SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ADVICE ONLINE SUPPORT MATERIALS ARE PROVIDED FOR EACH SUBJECT AND UPDATED REGULARLY ON THE SACE WEBSITE (WWW. SACE. SA. EDU. AU). EXAMPLES OF SUPPORT MATERIALS ARE SAMPLE LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT PLANS, ANNOTATED ASSESSMENT TASKS, ANNOTATED STUDENT RESPONSES, AND RECOMMENDED RESOURCE MATERIALS. Advice on Ethical Study and Research SEE THE ‘ETHICAL STUDY AND RESEARCH’ SECTION IN THE INTRODUCTION FOR INFORMATION ON: • ethical study and research practices • keeping and using animals for educational purposes • occupational health, safety, and welfare • safety practices in the laboratory. Stage 2 Biology | LEARNING SCOPE AND REQUIREMENTS LEARNING REQUIREMENTS THE LEARNING REQUIREMENTS SUMMARISE THE KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, AND UNDERSTANDING THAT STUDENTS ARE EXPECTED TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE THROUGH THEIR LEARNING. In this subject, students are expected to: 1. identify and formulate questions, hypotheses, concepts, and purposes that guide biological investigations 2. design and conduct individual and collaborative biological investigations 3. manipulate apparatus and use technological tools and numeracy skills to obtain, represent, analyse, interpret, and evaluate data and observations from biological investigations 4. elect and critically evaluate biological evidence from different sources and present informed conclusions and personal views on social, ethical, and environmental issues 5. communicate their knowledge and understanding of biological concepts, using appropriate biological terms and conventions 6. demonstrate and apply biological knowledge and understanding of concepts and interrelationships to a range of contexts and problems, including by presenting alternative explanations. These learning requirements form the basis of the: • learning scope • evidence of learning that students provide • assessment design criteria • levels of achievement described in the performance standards. Biological Investigation Skills

CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING IN STAGE 2 BIOLOGY ARE SUPPORTED THROUGH BIOLOGICAL INQUIRY AND COMMUNICATION ABOUT BIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA. STUDENTS UNDERTAKE BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS, BOTH PRACTICAL AND ISSUES BASED, TO DEVELOP THEIR OWN KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING. DATA AND INFORMATION, INCLUDING OBSERVATIONS, FROM THESE INVESTIGATIONS PROVIDE THE EVIDENCE ON WHICH DECISIONS ARE MADE. Biological investigations are carried out by students through individual and collaborative activities. Practical Investigations Students collect and interpret their own data in practical investigations that involve a range of activities and experimentation.

They develop and select investigable questions and measurable hypotheses, collect data using appropriate equipment and measurement skills, display and analyse data, and present conclusions appropriate to the initial question or hypothesis. Students critically evaluate the outcomes of practical investigations and consider a range of explanations for their observations. Literacy and numeracy skills are developed by questioning, displaying, and analysing data, and by communicating outcomes. Experiments are a part of practical investigations in Stage 2 Biology. Issues Investigations In issues investigations, students use information from different sources, which may include primary source data they generate themselves.

They develop questions for investigation, undertake procedures, and collect evidence to inform their investigations. They learn to think critically and reflectively when relating their evidence to the issue under investigation. They describe the different views people hold on an issue, based on their evidence. Teachers assist students to develop a framework within which an investigation is undertaken. Frameworks developed around the assessment design criteria enable students to present the most suitable evidence of their learning. Communication A vast amount of information is available on any topic in biology, and there are many ways of obtaining that information.

It is important therefore to learn and practise the techniques for obtaining and evaluating information. In biological investigations it is important that methods and results are open to scrutiny. This requires the clear and accurate communication of the details of an investigation to other people. In this subject, communication skills may be assessed through oral presentations and through essays on biological issues, reports of practical investigations, and other written assignments. Students develop their literacy skills as they acquire knowledge of biological terminology and its appropriate application, gain understanding of the contextual uses of data and concepts, and critically analyse information from different sources. Skills

The ways in which biological investigation skills are expressed are set out in the following table on intended student learning. |Key Ideas |Intended Student Learning | |Students should know and understand the following: |Students should provide evidence that they are able to do | | |the following: | |Purposes of Investigations | | |Investigations have a clearly defined purpose. |State the purpose of the investigation. | |Investigations are based on existing information or issues. For a given topic, state the key ideas or issues relevant to| |Before searching for information it is necessary to have a |the information required, and identify the type of resource | |clear idea of the information required, the level of detail |that might provide the information. | |needed, and the appropriate facilities for extracting the | | |information. | | |Before undertaking an information search it is necessary to |Identify key search words and phrases for a given topic. | |be familiar with search techniques, the way in which the |Use an information source (e. g. ibrary catalogue, CD-ROM, | |information is structured, and the means of retrieving the |or the Internet) to obtain information about a topic. | |information. | | |Questions and Hypotheses | | |Investigable questions guide investigations on biological |Formulate a question for an investigation based on a | |issues. |biological issue. | |Investigations are often designed to explore questions and |Suggest possible investigations to test the question. | |to develop possible solutions to those questions. | | |Experiments may be used to test hypotheses. |State a testable hypothesis, where appropriate. |Designing Investigations and Experiments | | |Design | | |Scientific inquiry involves designing procedures, including |Design and carry out investigations to explore posed | |practical investigations based on the scientific method or |questions or hypotheses, using the scientific method. | |observations made in the field, to investigate questions. |Design and carry out experiments to investigate a biological| |Designing an investigation involves identifying: |issue. |what needs to be observed |Record and analyse observations. | |the measurements that need to be taken | | |the techniques that need to be used | | |the apparatus or measuring instruments needed. | | |Every step in a practical or issues investigation serves a |Describe the steps of an investigation. | |purpose. |Draw or interpret diagrams of the apparatus used in an | | |experiment. |Variables | | |Many practical investigations involve deliberately changing |Identify the variables in a practical investigation. | |one quantity and determining the effect on another quantity. | | |These quantities are referred to as ‘variables’. | | |The quantity being deliberately changed is called the |Classify the variables in a practical investigation as | |‘independent variable’. The quantity that changes as a |independent or dependent. | |result is called the ‘dependent variable’. | |Other factors are held constant, if possible, throughout a |Identify any factors that are deliberately held constant | |practical investigation. |throughout a practical investigation. | |Conducting Investigations | | |Procedures | | |Practical investigations require a particular set of actions|Follow instructions accurately and safely. | |to be carried out in a well-defined order. | |Safety and Ethics | | |Ethical practices must be followed when conducting practical|Work ethically with animals. | |and issues investigations. |Maintain confidentiality, report accurately, and acknowledge| | |the work of other people. | |Safety must be considered when conducting investigations. |Recognise hazards and work safely during an investigation. | |Many investigations involve the collaborative efforts of a |Negotiate procedures with the other members of the team. | |team. |Define the role of each member. | |Members of a team work together. |Perform the role of a team member. |Errors in Measurements | | |Measurements are affected by random and/or systematic |Identify sources of errors and uncertainty that may occur in| |errors. |an investigation. | |Random errors are present when there is scatter in the |Distinguish between random and systematic errors. | |measured values. Systematic errors are present when measured| | |values differ consistently from the true value. | | |Where applicable, increasing the number of samples minimises|Explain the importance of increasing the number of samples | |the effects of random errors and improves the reliability of|in a practical investigation. | |the data. | |Systematic errors can be identified and results verified by |Explain the importance of repeating a practical | |repeating an experiment using an alternative source of |investigation where possible. | |equipment and materials. | | |Precision, Reliability, and Accuracy | | |The reliability/precision of data collection is related to |Where possible, collect data using measurements that can be | |the reproducibility of the measurements. |reproduced consistently. | |Measurements are more reliable when there is less scatter in|Determine which of two or more sets of measurements is most | |the results. |reliable. |Reliability depends on the extent to which random errors are|Use averages or graphing as a means of detecting or | |minimised. |minimising the effects of random errors. | |The accuracy of an experimental value indicates how close |State which result of two or more experiments is most | |the result is to the true value and depends on the extent to|accurate, given the true value. | |which systematic errors are minimised. | | |The resolution of a measuring instrument is the smallest |Select an instrument of appropriate resolution for a | |increment measurable by the measuring instrument. |measurement. |The number of significant figures for a measurement is |Record and use measurements to an appropriate number of | |determined by the reproducibility of the measurement and the|significant figures. | |resolution of the measuring instrument. | | |Information and Data | | |Investigations involve evidence, which may be quantitative |Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative evidence. | |or qualitative. | | |Valid conclusions depend on gathering appropriate evidence. |In investigations, make and record careful and honest | | |observations and measurements. |Data can be more easily interpreted if presented in a |Present data in an appropriate tabular form. Include a | |well-structured table. |title, column headings showing the quantities measured and | | |units used, and the values observed or researched. | |Graphs are a useful way of displaying data. When a graph is |Plot a graph of dependent variable versus independent | |plotted, the independent variable (or a quantity derived |variable. Include a title, labelled axes, and appropriate | |from it) is plotted horizontally and the dependent variable |scales and units. | |(or a quantity derived from it) is plotted vertically. | |A line of best fit can show relationships between variables |Draw a line of best fit through a series of points on a | |in an experiment. |graph such that the plotted points are scattered evenly | | |above and below the line of best fit. | |Understanding of a topic, issue, or question is enhanced, |Obtain information from different sources. | |using information from different sources. | | |Information obtained must be critically examined for |Evaluate for bias, credibility, accuracy, and suitability | |accuracy and suitability for the purpose for which it was |the information obtained from a source. | |sought. | |The source of information must be recorded so that the |List the sources of information, using an appropriate | |information is accessible to others. |format. | |Interpretation and Evaluation | | |Careful observation in a practical investigation is |Describe a pattern observed in the results of an | |essential for analysis and for comparison with other |investigation. | |investigations. | | |The scatter of data points above and below the line of best |Using the scatter in the graphs of data from similar | |fit is probably due to random errors. |investigations, compare the random errors. |Subsequent investigations can be improved by the critical |Analyse and evaluate information from a series of | |evaluation of the procedure and results. |observations or an investigation, and suggest improvements | | |or indicate the additional information needed. | |A conclusion should be written at the end of each |Write a conclusion that is based on the results of an | |investigation. |investigation and related to the question posed and the | | |purpose of, or the hypothesis for, the investigation. |Alternative Views | | |The evidence collected through investigations may be |Describe a range of alternative interpretations or points of| |interpreted in a variety of ways. |view based on evidence and state reasons for the selection | | |of the preferred interpretation. | |Arguments can be presented for and against an issue |Construct for-and-against arguments on an issue based on | |presented through different sources. |information gathered from different sources. | |Personal views must be substantiated by the evidence on the |Present a justification of, or evidence for, a personal | |basis of information selected from an investigation. |view. |Communication | | |Communication in biology uses specific terminology, |Use biological terminology, conventions, and symbols that | |conventions, and symbols. |are appropriate for the purpose of the communication. | |Communication for different audiences requires the use of a |Select the appropriate format for a particular audience. | |format suitable for the purpose. | | |All communication needs to be well structured, well |Present communications (oral, written, and multimedia) | |organised, and clearly presented. |clearly and logically, using biological concepts appropriate| | |for the audience. |Written reports of investigations should state what was done|Write a report of an investigation that includes a | |and why, the results, the analysis and interpretation of the|description of its purpose and experimental procedure, | |results, and the conclusions drawn from the results. |results, analysis, interpretation, and conclusions. | |Sufficient information should be included to enable the | | |procedure to be repeated by others. | | |Multimedia presentations use minimal language and a variety |Use concise language and graphics to present information. |of graphics to present an argument. | | Content STAGE 2 BIOLOGY IS A 20-CREDIT SUBJECT IN WHICH THE TOPICS ARE PRESCRIBED. The Stage 2 Biology subject outline is organised around the following four themes: • Macromolecules • Cells • Organisms • Ecosystems. The themes are arranged as a hierarchy. Each theme is divided into the following six threads: • Organisation • Selectivity • Energy Flow • Perpetuation • Evolution • Human Awareness. This subject outline also identifies a set of skills that should be developed through practical and other learning activities within and across the themes and threads.

The following table shows the interrelationship of the themes, threads, and key ideas of the subject; the latter are denoted by a letter–number code, which does not indicate a prescribed teaching sequence. The biological investigation skills described under Learning Scope and Requirements are an essential component of Stage 2 Biology. Students are expected to have opportunities to develop these skills through their learning opportunities and to provide evidence of their learning and competency in these skills through both the school assessment and the external assessment. |Threads | | | | Themes Macromolecules

This theme covers the structure and function of organic macromolecules found in living things. Cells This theme covers the structure and function of cells in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. Organisms This theme covers the structure and function of organisms. The human body is used as the only exemplar in the organisation and selectivity threads. However, the study of an additional range of organisms may reinforce the concepts covered in this theme. Ecosystems This theme covers interactions between members of the same species, different species, and the non-living environment, with a strong emphasis on the evolutionary perspective. Threads Organisation

This thread describes the integration of structure with function. Selectivity This thread describes how many cell functions can proceed only by using very specific forms of molecules, and the processes by which living systems selectively exchange matter and energy with their environment. Energy Flow This thread describes processes in which forms of energy are converted for use by organisms. Perpetuation This thread describes the passing of information to descendants and the preservation of larger-scale organisation. Evolution This thread describes the processes of genetic changes and their accumulation to make the characteristics of descendants different from those of their ancestors. Human Awareness

This thread describes aspects of biology in which the human species plays an important role. The following key ideas and intended student learning describe the content of this subject. Macromolecules (M) |Key Ideas |Intended Student Learning | |Students should know and understand the following: |Students should be able to do the following: | |Organisation | | |M1. The chemical unit of genetic information in most |M1. 1 Model the structure of DNA as a double helix made up of| |organisms is DNA. a sequence of complementary bases joined by weak bonds. The | | |bases are attached to a sugar phosphate backbone. | |M2. The structural unit of information in the cell is the |M2. 1 Know that a chromosome is made up of many genes. | |chromosome. |M2. 2 Explain that each chromosome has genes specific to that| | |chromosome, making it identifiable. | |M3. The functional unit of information on the chromosome is |M3. 1 Know that a gene consists of a unique sequence of bases| |the gene. |that code for a polypeptide or an RNA molecule. | |M3. 2 Describe how three bases, called a codon in mRNA, code | | |for one amino acid. | |M4. The flow of information from DNA to protein is |M4. 1 Describe and illustrate the processes of transcription | |unidirectional in most organisms. |and translation, including the roles of mRNA, tRNA, and | |DNA > RNA > protein |ribosomes. | |M5. The three-dimensional structure of a protein is critical|M5. 1 Explain how the three-dimensional structure of proteins| |to its function. can facilitate the recognition and binding of specific | | |molecules, including enzymes and substrates, and cell | | |membrane receptors and hormones. | |M6. Polysaccharides and lipids are important macromolecules |M6. 1 Know that polysaccharides, including cellulose and | |in cells and organisms. |chitin, and lipids contribute to the structural components | | |of cells and organisms. | | |M6. 2 Know that polysaccharides, including starch and | | |glycogen, and lipids, including fats and oils, contribute to| | |energy reserves in cells. |Selectivity | | |M7. Specific base-pairing is the mechanism of DNA |M7. 1 Illustrate the mechanism of | |replication. |semi-conservative replication through complementary | | |base-pairing. | |M8. Enzymes are specific for their substrate. |M8. 1 Describe the induced-fit model of enzyme–substrate | | |binding. | | |M8. Explain how pH, temperature, and chemical inhibitors | | |can alter the binding of enzymes and substrates at the | | |active site. | |M9. Molecular recognition is an important property for life |M9. 1 Explain how cell membrane receptors allow cells to | |processes. |recognise and select molecules necessary for cell | | |activities. | |Energy Flow | | |M10.

Enzymes increase reaction rates by lowering activation |M10. 1 Understand that reactions require an initial input of | |energy. |energy to proceed. | | |M10. 2 Describe how enzymes catalyse biological reactions by | | |lowering the input of energy required to initiate a | | |reaction. | |M11. Macromolecules are used as energy reserves. |M11. 1 Know that glycogen, starch, and some lipids are | | |important stores of energy. |Perpetuation | | |M12. DNA carries genetic information from one generation to|M12. 1 Understand that DNA is perpetuated by | |the next. |semi-conservative replication. | |Evolution | | |M13. The universal presence of DNA is strong evidence for |M13. 1 Know that DNA holds genetic information in most living| |the common ancestry of all living things. |things. | | |M13. 2 Know that DNA has diversified over billions of years. | |M14. DNA and protein sequences usually show greater |M14. Understand that organisms have common features | |similarity between closely related groups of organisms than |attributable to commonly shared sequences of DNA. | |between distantly related groups. |M14. 2 Explain why the greater the similarity there is | | |between the sequences of nucleotides in their DNA, the more | | |likely it is that the separation of two species is recent. | |M15. Change in the base sequence of DNA can lead to the |M15. 1 Know that changes in the DNA sequence are called | |alteration or absence of proteins and to the appearance of |‘mutations’. | |new characteristics in the descendants. |M15. Know that the mutation rate can be increased by | | |radiation, mutagenic chemicals, and high temperature. | | |M15. 3 Explain how inheritable mutations can lead to changes | | |in the characteristics of the descendants. | |Human Awareness | | |M16. Human beings can manipulate DNA. |M16. 1 Know that DNA can be extracted from cells. | | |M16. Describe how particular genes can be selected and | | |removed using probes and restriction enzymes. | | |M16. 3 Describe how selected genes can be transferred between| | |species using bacterial plasmids, viruses, and | | |microinjection. | | |M16. 4 Discuss the social consequences of the manipulation of| | |DNA. | |M17. Human eings can sequence even small amounts of DNA. |M17. 1 Understand that segments of DNA can be multiplied | | |using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and that their | | |base sequences can then be identified (details are not | | |required). | | |M17. 2 Explain how differences in DNA fragments, identified | | |by DNA profiling, can be used in forensic science. | Cells (C) Key Ideas |Intended Student Learning | |Students should know and understand the following: |Students should be able to do the following: | |Organisation | | |C1. The cell is the unit of structure and function of most |C1. 1 Understand that the cell is the smallest independent | |organisms. |unit of life. | | |C1. 2 Explain the significance of the surface area-to-volume | | |ratio. | |C2. There are two main types of cell organisation. |C2. 1 Compare the size and structural organisation of | | |prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. | | |C2. Describe the structure and function of the following | | |organelles: nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast, vacuole, | | |Golgi body, and endoplasmic reticulum. | | |C2. 3 Understand why even the simplest cell has several | | |hundred genes. | |C3. All cells have a lipoprotein cell membrane. In |C3. 1 Describe the structure and function of the cell | |eukaryotic cells it is attached to the cytoskeleton. |membrane in terms of the fluid mosaic model. | | |C3. Describe the role of the membrane in endocytosis and | | |exocytosis. | | |C3. 3 State three functions of the cytoskeleton. | |Selectivity | | |C4. The intracellular environment of cells differs in |C4. 1 Know that the proportions of chemicals in the | |composition from the extracellular environment of cells. |intracellular environment of cells are different from those | | |in the extracellular environment of cells. | |C4. 2 Understand why the internal composition of the cell is | | |regulated. | | |C4. 3 Explain how selective exchange occurs at the cell | | |membrane. | |C5. Movement of substances across membranes may be passive |C5. 1 Understand that the movement of substances by diffusion| |or require the expenditure of energy. |and osmosis is passive. | | |C5. Understand that the active transport of substances | | |against the concentration gradient requires energy. This | | |energy is supplied by ATP. | |Energy Flow | | |C6. All cells require energy. |C6. 1 Know that all living cells use energy for movement, | | |synthesis, and the maintenance of a stable intracellular | | |environment. | |C7.

Energy is obtained in physical or chemical form from the|C7. 1 Know that the sun is the main source of energy for | |cell’s environment, and energy transformations occur within |life. | |the cell. |C7. 2 Understand that light energy can be used by some cells | | |in photosynthesis. | | |C7. 3 Know that some molecules contain energy that can be | | |released when chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are | | |formed. | |C7. 4 Explain how the ATP/ADP conversion provides energy for | | |use in cells. | | |C7. 5 Explain why energy pathways involve many small, | | |regulated steps. | | |C7. 6 Describe how a metabolic pathway is controlled by a | | |specific enzyme at each step. | | |C7. Understand that each step produces intermediate | | |compounds and loses some energy as heat. | |Perpetuation | | |C8. Cells arise from pre-existing cells, and cell division |C8. 1 Explain why the amount of DNA in a cell doubles before | |leads to an increase in cell number. |division. | | |C8. 2 Describe how prokaryotic cells divide by binary | | |fission. | |C8. 3 Illustrate the process of mitosis in eukaryotic cells. | | |C8. 4 Know that the products of mitotic division or binary | | |fission have the same number and type of chromosomes as the | | |parent. | |C9. Division may be regulated by internal and external |C9. 1 Know that the cell produces gene products that regulate| |factors. |the cell cycle. | | |C9. Understand that hormones may regulate cell division. | | |C9. 3 Understand that carcinogens upset the normal controls | | |of cell division by causing mutations. | |Evolution | | |C10. Existing cells are the products of evolution. |C10. 1 Understand that there is evidence that prokaryotic | | |cells existed before eukaryotic cells. | | |C10. Explain how the ancestry of most existing eukaryotic | | |cells probably involved endosymbiotic events. | |Human Awareness | | |C11. Human beings culture cells for a variety of purposes. |C11. 1 Understand techniques of cell culture, and discuss | | |some contemporary examples of their use. | |C12. Chemicals can interfere with cell metabolism. |C12. 1 Discuss possible benefits and/or harmful effects of | | |chemicals that human beings use. | Organisms (O)

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