Social contract or contractarian (use at least two philosophers in your description) Classic liberalism or libertarianism (use at least two philosophers in your description) Marxism (use at least one philosopher in your description)
Communitarians (use at least one philosopher in your description) Capabilities approach (use at least one philosopher in your description)
Follow your descriptions with a conclusion answering the following questions:
How are these theories similar to one another?
How are they different from one another?
Do you find one philosophy more compelling than the others? If so, why?
The social contract or political contract is a theory or model, originating during the Age of Enlightenment, that typically addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. Social contract arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority of the ruler or magistrate (or to the decision of a majority), in exchange for protection of their remaining rights. The question of the relation between natural and legal rights, therefore, is often an aspect of social contract theory.The most important contemporary political social contract theorist is John Rawls, who effectively resurrected social contract theory in the second half of the 20th century, along with David Gauthier, who is primarily a moral contractarian. Marxism
Under Marxism, outdated class structures were supposed to be overthrown with force instead of being replaced through patient modification. It held that as capitalism has succeeded feudalism, it too will be removed by a dictatorship of the workers called socialism, followed quickly and inevitably by a classless society which governs itself without a governing class or structure. It was jointly developed in the 19th century by two lifelong German friends living in London – Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and it forms the foundation of communism.
Classical liberalism is a political philosophy and ideology that emerged as a response to the Industrial Revolution and urbanization in the 19th century in Europe and the United States. It shares a number of beliefs with other belief systems belonging to liberalism, advocating civil liberties and political freedom, limited government, rule of law, and belief in free market. Classical liberals were more suspicious than conservatives of all but the most minimal government and, adopting Thomas Hobbes’s theory of government, they believed government had been created by individuals to protect themselves from one another.
Marxism is completely centrally controlled economy in which labor is directed (the government tells you where you will work) and goods and services are rationed based on a bureaucratic determination of “need.” Liberalism is when the government has an obligation to make sure that people live comfortably regardless of a person’s actual contribution to making their own comfort possible. So while they wish to control the financial situation they generally favor a high degree of social freedom. Contractarianism suggests
that the central assertion of social contract approaches is that law and political order are not natural, but are instead human creations. The social contract and the political order it creates are simply the means towards an end — the benefit of the individuals involved — and legitimate only to the extent that they fulfill their part of the agreement.
Philosophy: The Power of Ideas (8th ed.) (Moore and Bruder)