Answer 1- Historical materialists support state-led socialist/ communist states. They criticize liberal capitalists or neo-liberals because of the following reasons:
1. Liberal capitalists focus on individual ability to make profits and the individual right to private property versus the belief of the materialists about everyone’s right to earn profit.
2. Capitalists/ Neo liberals are unjust and they encourage/ believe in a system that fosters the accumulation of wealth in the hands of a few vs. democratic socialists who believe in universal services like education, health care, etc.
3. The historical materialists believe that neo liberalism puts profits over people and creates a dependency of poor countries on the rich, and interferes with the sovereignty of poor countries.
4. Neo liberals advocate doing away with labor unions, encourages privatization, trickle down notion of wealth distribution and reducing public expenditure for social services such as health and education.
5. Neo liberals only care about paying off debts and not governmental help for poor people.
Answer 2- The major points of “Globalization of Care Work” are as follows:
1.Care work has been distributed in an international system where immigrant workers provide care in wealthier countries of North America, Europe, Australia, Middle East and East Asia-where poor immigrant women provide care work for more affluent families. As a result women make up more than half of all migration flows from third world countries. Care workers send the money back to their countries to support their families’ guaranteeing a smooth currency flow. Immigrant care workers may have temporary work permits but most of them are undocumented.
2. How economic restructuring has helped create both demand and supply of immigrant care workers while migration policies have played a key role in shaping migration flows.
3. Neoliberal model is the predominant economic strategy employed worldwide and as states withdraw from social care provision it has led to international division of care work that places the burden for care on immigrant women workers.
4. Restructuring of welfare states and growth in middle class female employment outside the home, rapid increase in elderly population and the rising trend of lone-parent families have necessitated employment of immigrant domestic workers.
5. Migration policies are shaped by former and existing migration flows, historical relationships between countries. They contribute to the conditions of employment for immigrant workers.
6. In countries like Germany immigrant care workers were not given work permit until as late as 2001. Now they get work permits for “household help”.
7. Due to high levels of unemployment Poland encourages short term migration now. Many Polish women migrate to Germany with short term work permits.
8. France does not ensure work permits to domestic workers. The employers have to pay high taxes if they register domestic help so many of them don’t register immigrant care givers. This often leads to exploitation. Similar to Poland Morocco encourages migration of workers to France due to less availability of jobs in Morocco.
9. Economic restructuring has helped create conditions for greater globalization while migration policies have directed the flow of immigrant care workers.
Misra, J., Woodring, J. and Merz, S. N. ‘The Globalization of Care Work.’ Globalizations 3.3: 317-332. Amherst: Routledge, 2006. Print.