IGNOU Assignment Essay

Note : Attempt all the questions and submit this assignment on or before 30th April, 2013 to the coordinator of your study center.

1)Explain the historical review of industrial relations in India. Discuss the recent developments in the field of industrial relations in India with suitable examples. High light the issues and challenges for the industrial relations system in India.

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2)Explain the origin and growth of Trade Unions in India. Describe the functions of Trade Unions in any organisation you are familiar with. What are your suggestions for strengthening the Trade Unions in India? Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.

3)Explain the meaning and concept of collective bargaining. Describe the functions of collective bargaining of any organisation you are familiar with. Discuss the conditions for success of collective bargaining. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.

4)Explain the aims and objectives of workers participation in Management. Describe the effectiveness workers participation practices of an organisation with which you are familiar with. Outline the pre-requisites for effective participation. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.

5)Discuss the meaning and content of the grievance. Explain various approaches of grievance resolution. Describe the approach of grievance resolution in any organisation you are familiar with. In your opinion whether the approach is effective or not. Discuss.

Ans 1)
The relationship between Employer and employee or trade unions is called Industrial Relation. Harmonious relationship is necessary for both employers and employees to safeguard the interests of the both the parties of the production. In order to maintain good relationship with the employees, the main functions of every organization should avoid any dispute with them or settle it as early as possible so as to ensure industrial peace and higher productivity. Personnel management is mainly concerned with the human relation in industry because the main theme of personnel management is to get the work done by the human power and it fails in its objectives if good industrial relation is maintained. In other words good Industrial Relation means industrial peace which is necessary for better and higher productions.

A few notable features pertaining to Industrial Relations are as under:

1. Industrial Relation do not emerge in vacuum they are born of employment relationship in an industrial setting. Without the existence of the two parties, i.e. labor and management, this relationship cannot exist. It is the industry, which provides the environment for industrial relations. 2. Industrial Relation are characterized by both conflict and co-operations. This is the basis of adverse relationship. So the focus of Industrial Relations in on the study of the attitudes, relationships, practices and procedure developed by the contending parties to resolve or at least minimize conflicts. 3. As the labor and management do not operate in isolations but are parts of large system, so the study of Industrial Relation also includes vital environment issues like technology of the workplace, country’s socio-economic and political environment, nation’s labor policy, attitude of trade unions workers and employers.

4. Industrial Relation also involve the study of conditions conductive to the labor, managements co-operations as well as the practices and procedures required to elicit the desired co-operation from both the parties. 5. Industrial Relations also study the laws, rules regulations agreements, awards of courts, customs and traditions, as well as policy framework laid down by the governments for eliciting co-operations between labor and management. Besides this, it makes an in-depth analysis of the interference patterns of the executive and judiciary in the regulations of labor–managements relations.


The healthy industrial relations are key to the progress. Their significance may be discussed as under – 1. Uninterrupted production – The most important benefit of industrial relations is that this ensures continuity of production. This means, continuous employment for all from manager to workers. The resources are fully utilized, resulting in the maximum possible production. There is uninterrupted flow of income for all. Smooth running of an industry is of vital importance for several other industries; to other industries if the products are intermediaries or inputs; to exporters if these are export goods; to consumers and workers, if these are goods of mass consumption.

2. Reduction in Industrial Disputes – Good industrial relation reduce the industrial disputes. Disputes are reflections of the failure of basic human urges or motivations to secure adequate satisfaction or expression which are fully cured by good industrial relations. Strikes, lockouts, go-slow tactics, gherao and grievances are some of the reflections of industrial unrest which do not spring up in an atmosphere of industrial peace. It helps promoting co-operation and increasing production. 3. High morale – Good industrial relations improve the morale of the employees. Employees work with great zeal with the feeling in mind that the interest of employer and employees is one and the same, i.e. to increase production.

Every worker feels that he is a co-owner of the gains of industry. The employer in his turn must realize that the gains of industry are not for him along but they should be shared equally and generously with his workers. In other words, complete unity of thought and action is the main achievement of industrial peace. It increases the place of workers in the society and their ego is satisfied. It naturally affects production because mighty co-operative efforts alone can produce great results.

4. Mental Revolution – The main object of industrial relation is a complete mental revolution of workers and employees. The industrial peace lies ultimately in a transformed outlook on the part of both. It is the business of leadership in the ranks of workers, employees and Government to work out a new relationship in consonance with a spirit of true democracy. Both should think themselves as partners of the industry and the role of workers in such a partnership should be recognized. On the other hand, workers must recognize employer’s authority. It will naturally have impact on production because they recognize the interest of each other.

5. New Programmes – New programmes for workers development are introduced in an atmosphere of peace such as training facilities, labor welfare facilities etc. It increases the efficiency of workers resulting in higher and better production at lower costs. 6. Reduced Wastage – Good industrial relations are maintained on the basis of cooperation and recognition of each other. It will help increase production. Wastages of man, material and machines are reduced to the minimum and thus national interest is protected.

The industrial relations system in India has been under pressure for decades and new problems are emerging as the country becomes more integrated into the global economy. The main architecture of the system was established prior to Independence and remains mostly unchanged. The system is highly centralized and the state is the main mediator between capital and labour. Unions have historically enjoyed a close relationship with the state through party-based federations, but this has undermined their success developing a robust grassroots constituency and experience in collective bargaining.

This essay provides a broad overview of the evolution of the Indian system of industrial relations and the labour market reform debate that has arisen in the context of economic change. The structure of the Indian labour market, the overwhelming size of the informal or `unorganized’ workforce, and its location outside the industrial system is the fundamental challenge facing Indian industrial relations. There is an urgent need to develop a system that embraces all workers especially given India’s demographic profile and the expected increase in the number of working age people over the next decade. The experience of women workers and the failure of both the industrial system and the union movement to understand and accommodate their needs is also an important challenge for industrial relations in India.


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