Marketing Research Test 2 Chapter 6 Primary data: information that is developed or gathered y the researcher specifically for the research project at hand –Secondary data: have previously been gathered by someone other than the researcher and/or for some purpose other than the research project at hand –Internal secondary data: data that have been collected within the firm, such as sales records, purchase requisitions, and invoices –External secondary data: data obtained from outside the firm, published, syndicated services data, and databases –Database marketing: the process of building, maintaining, and using customer (internal) databases and other (internal) databases (products, suppliers, resellers) for the purpose of contacting, transacting, and building relationships –Data mining: the name for the software that is now available to help managers make sense out of seemingly senseless masses of information contained in databases –Internal databases : databases consisting of information gathered by a company during the normal course of business transactions –Syndicated services data : provided by firms that collect data in a standard format and make them available to subscribing firms.
Typically highly specialized and are not available in libraries for the general public –External databases: databases supplied by organizations outside the firm and may be used as sources of secondary data –Online information databases: sources of secondary data searchable by search engines online. Factiva, LexisNexis, ProQuest, & Gale Group –CRM, Customer Relationship Management: strengthening relationships with customers by using internal databases for purposes of direct marketing. –North American Industry Classification System (NAICS): a coding system; a system of coding business firms and can be used by researchers to access info stored in databases according to the NAICS codes. –Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system: being replaced by NAICS because of NAFTA.
Classified establishments by the type of activity in which they were engaged –”Survey of Buying Power” : allows users to access the marketing potential of a given geographical area using an index called the buying power index, or BPI –Effective buying income (EBI): disposable personal income –Buying power index (BPI) (anything related to BPI also): an indicator of the relative market potential in a geographic area Chapter 7 –Standardized information: a type of secondary data in which the data collected and/or the process of collecting the data are standardized for all users –Syndicated data: data that are collected in standard format and made available to all subscribers –Standardized services: refers to a standardized marketing research process that is used to generate information for a particular user –Harris poll: measures consumer attitudes and opinions on a wide variety of topics (economy, environment, politics, world affairs, legal issues, etc. eekly, good source for identifying trend lines. Standardized info, thus syndicated data –Gallup poll: surveys public opinion, asking questions on domestic issues, private issues, and world affairs. Attitudes can be tracked toward buying private brands or attitudes toward credit. Compiled annually, syndicated data –GeoVals: service that identifies at the ZIP code or census block level the major VALS segents residing in a geographical area –VALS: a standardized services that offers a psychographic segmenting system to determine win which of the eight VALS segments a consumer belongs based on psychological characteristics and demographics –PRIZM: Potential Ratings Index for Zip Markets.
Defines every neighborhood in the US based upon 66 market segments –Geodemographics: term used to describe the classification of arbitrary, usually small, geographic areas in terms of the characteristics of their inhabitants –Single-source data : data that contain information on several variables such as promotional message exposure, demographics, and buyer behavior –Tracking studies: studies that monitor, or track, a variable over time –Scanning data: part of the Scantrack system, recognized as industry standard in terms of providing tracking data gathered from stores’ scanners –Retail-store audits: auditors record merchandising information needed for tracking studies –People meter: an electronic instrument that automatically measurers when a tv set is on, and who is watching which channel –Arbitron: provides syndicated data on radio station listening through representative samples of each loyal market it surveys –Personal portable meter (PPM:) Arbitron’s passive metering service. Automatically records stations listened to –Diary: reports of listening or watching patterns Chapter 8 Quantitative research: research involving the use of structured questions in which the response options have ben predetermined and a large number of respondents are involved –Qualitative research: involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data by observing what people do and say. Observations and statements are in a qualitative or nonstandardized form –Observation methods: the researcher relies on observation rather than on communication in order to obtain information. Requires something to observe, & often utilizes recording devices –Direct observation: observing behavior as it occurs –Indirect observation: the researcher studies the effects or results of the behavior rather than the behavior itself –Physical traces: tangible evidence of some event.
Ex: garbology –studying the trash of subjects being studied –Disguised observation: the subject is unaware that he or she is being observed –Undisguised observation: when the respondent knows he or she is being observed –Structured observation: the researcher identifies beforehand which behaviors are to be observed and recorded –Unstructured observation: places no restriction on what the observer will record –Human observation: the observer is a person hired by the researcher, or perhaps, the observer is the researcher –Mechanical observation: replacing the human observer with some form of static observing device –Focus group: small groups of people brought together and guided by a moderator through an unstructured, spontaneous discussion for the purpose of gaining information relevant to the research problem –Traditional focus group: 6-12 persons meet in a dedicated room with a one way member for client viewing for about 2 hours –Non-traditional focus group: groups may be online, and clients may observe on computer monitors from distant locations; groups may have 25-50 respondents, clients may interact with participants, sessions may last 4-5 hours & take part outside of traditional facilities, such as in a park –Moderators: Qualitative research consultants; interviewer of focus group participants –Focus group report: summarizes the information provided by the focus group participants relative to the research questions; prepared by mediators or QRC’s –Online focus group: form of nontraditional focus group; the respondents and/or clients communicate and/or observe over the internet –Depth interview: a set of probing questions posed one on one to a subject y a trained interviewer to gain an idea of what the subject thinks about something or why the subject behaves in a certain way –Protocol analysis: placing people in a decision making situation and asking them to verbalize everything they consider when making a decision –Projective techniques: situations in which participants undergo simulated activities in the hope that they will divulge things about themselves they might not reveal under direct questioning; often used in situations where researcher feels respondents will hesitate to relate true feelings –Word association test: involves reading words to a respondent, who then answers with the first word that comes to mind –Sentence completion test: respondents are given incomplete sentences an asked to complete them in their own words. Ex: Someone who drinks hot tea is _________. –Picture test: participants are given a picture and are instructed to describe their reactions by writing a short story about it –Balloon test: a line drawing with an empty “balloon” (speech bubble) above the head of one of the figures. Subjects are asked to write in what they feel the figure is saying or thinking.
Results then examined to see how subjects feel about the depicted situation –Pluralistic research: the combination of both qualitative and quantitative research methods in order to gain the advantages of both. Often begin with exploratory, qualitative, then utilize data to move into the quantitative phase –Role playing: participants are asked to pretend they are a “third person” (ie. Friend or neighbor) and to describe how they would act in a certain situation or respond to a specific statement –Ethnographic research: borrowed from anthropology; detailed, descriptive study of a group and it’s behavior, characteristics, culture, etc -ethno-people, graphy-to describe –Physiological measurement: monitoring a respondent’s involuntary responses to marketing stimuli via the use of electrodes and other equipment.
Rarely used because monitored people find the situation strange –Pupilometer: device that attaches to a person’s head and determines interest and attention by measure the amount of dilatation in the pupil of the eye –Galvanometer: device that determines excitement levels by measuring the electrical activity in the respondent’s skin. Pads attached to skin. –Laddering: one-on-one depth interview technique that seeks to reveal how individuals relate the features of products they purchase to their personally held beliefs; relevant features of product purchase related to perceived benefits of the product –Eye tracking: studying the movements and behaviors of the eye in relation to content on a screen, especially the internet.