1. Who is a disabled/delayed reader?
Classrooms often times encounter some students who demonstrate some form of struggle when learning how to read or when developing this particular skill. In this case, there are some instructional strategies that can be applied in order to respond to this challenge. However, it is important to identify the difference between a disabled reader and a delayed reader. According to MacCormick, a disabled reader is an individual who can display substantial learning skills but has had problems learning how to read. Hence, this does not mean that a disabled reader is someone is “not able”. Even though these disabled readers have the intelligence to learn other skills and they receive substantive instruction, their reading abilities seem to be hindered. A delayed reader, on one hand, has a slower rate in developing his or her reading skills.
2. What practical applications might the Rumelhart model suggest for use in your classroom?
The interactive model can be used in the classroom as a means to assist struggling readers to learn reading at a more regular and efficient rate. In this model, Rumelhart proposes a more visual approach in reading through the bottom-up and top-down processes. This works because this model follows the directional movement of the eye and the student gets to register information related to a particular visual movement. The model also integrates the other processes that a reader also factors in as a way to learn meaning: these processes utilize graphemic, phonemic, morphemic, syntax, and semantics. The interactive model is based on the idea that these different processes function information through their interactions. In application, an interactive instructional program can be formulated which include activities such as shared reading experience and reading readiness, among others.
Possible Causes of Reading Delays
Proposed Causes Rejected by Research
1. Faulty eye movements
2. Lack of neurological organization
3. Lack of phonemic awareness
4. Medically diagnosed brain damage
5. Mismatch instructional method and student’s preferred learning modality
6. Mixed cerebral dominance
7. visual perception difficulties
1. Food additives
2. Hereditary factors
3. Home environment
4. Matthew effects
5. emotional problems
6. low teacher expectations
7. non-standard oral language dialect
8. poor motor coordination
9. poor speech articulation
10. prenatal exposure to crack/cocaine
11. refined sugar
12. severe hearing impairment
A. It is rare that reading delays are caused nearsightedness. Although the student may feel suspended in learning how to read because of problems in actually seeing what is being read, this does not directly involve the reading ability of the individual. However, this can cause reading delays because the student is unable to immediately identify what is being learned. This may take place if not corrected immediately.
B. A possible cause that is most likely an effect in reading delay can be due to mixed cerebral dominance. Since those who have problems in reading does not necessarily have problems in learning other skills, it may be a neurological issue as to why some are delayed in learning how to read whereas other learning areas does not seem to be affected.
1. When it comes to assessing the potential of the student in terms of his or her reading skills, an approach that was used before was to determine the learning expectancy level or the reading expectancy. A common perception is that if a student is at certain grade level, his or her potential or reading expectancy is also rated at that level.
Current approaches to determining potential have utilized the measure of intelligence as the indicator of learning expectancy or reading expectancy levels. Therefore, many assessment frameworks today automatically relate potential to one’s IQ. However, many literacy and special education educators do not find this system as workable because of the problematic stance on the definition of IQ, the possible irrelevance of reading performance with IQ test performance, and the fact that there are several different IQ tests. Hence, one of the means that also emerged as a means to determine potential is through comprehension. An example is to have the student listen to a material that is read to them, and afterwards, the student is tasked to respond to a set of questions. Although this exercise does not really involve the student reading the material, this assessment determines how the student will likely comprehend the reading should they read it herself or himself.
2. Standardized tests are basically calibrated according to an established standard; its advantage is that it sets the bar of reading assessment and expectations. In a sense, this is a democratic means to assess the students’ reading and comprehension ability thus putting everyone in the same wave. This can be also deemed a valid way to implement a wide testing measure. However, the disadvantage is that not all students are at the same reading levels; although this is the point of the test, there are valid reasons as to why students are delayed or are not at par with the rest of the other students taking the test. For instance there are factors such as problems with the instruction methodologies, problems at school, and other demographic factors (social and economic) that puts standardized test an unfair assessment should it aims to measure students across the country with varying factors that determine learning skills and capacity.
Informal reading inventories refer to the
1) Advantages of informal reading inventories
2) Disadvantages of informal reading inventories
The 14 Principles to Promote Successful Reading Growth
Principle One: Begin Early
With this principle, successful reading growth has something to do with the early exposure of the individual to reading activities and opportunities. Reading growth has to therefore begin early in order to condition the individual in developing the skills at an early age; from there, they will have more opportunities of expanding their skills.
Principle Two: Consider the Benefits of One-to-One Tutoring
One-to-One tutoring is actually beneficial because this gives the teacher the opportunity to focus on the student, and the student will also feel more open in learning new things without feeling the restrictions caused by having to learn in a classroom environment. Another benefit is that the teacher will get to know more the needs of the student, and the student will get to express or convey his or her learning preferences.
Principle Three: Take Into Account the Effects of the Teacher’s Instructional Actions During Group Learning
During group learning, both the teacher and the students are subject to a group environment that may be advantageous or disadvantageous for some. It is the teacher’s role to determine how to best control the environment, which is why teachers should be aware of the impact of his or her instructional actions because this may be misinterpreted by the students.
Principle Four: Provide Opportunities for Collaborative Learning
Collaborative learning can be considered as one of the effective group learning channels. A teacher may use collaborative learning strategies in order to increase the socialization of the students and at the same time, the students will learn from each other. These can therefore enhance other skills in addition to the reading related activity at hand.
Principle Five: Consider the Implications of Independent Work
Giving students independent work has its implications because this conveys that the student is able to fulfill the requirement on his own. Some students may like this type of activity, but for some, especially those who have been struggling with reading, may find independent work intimidating and may cause them to withdraw or feel the challenge to their self-esteem.
Principle Six: Consider Time on Task
Time is of the essence in any classroom activity. Tasks should function along a certain timeframe in order for the students to up their skills.
Principle Seven: Let the Student Read
In this principle, letting the student read is a means for the student to actually read the material without direct guidance from the teacher or from the classmate. When letting the student read the teacher gives him or her the opportunity to experience reading and comprehension on their own, and they will be able to develop the skills by learning from this experience.
Principle Eight: Encourage Outside Reading
Although students are typically prescribed with a reading list, encouraging outside reading is helpful for the students. This is because the students will be able to select what they really want to read, and this can further motivate to read some more especially given the power that they can read what they want and they freely enjoy these materials.
Principle Nine: Incorporate High-Quality Literature Into the Program
Using “accessible” materials for students may be a practical way for them to encourage reading, but by integrating high-quality literature into the program, the students get exposed to wider variety of materials that can also further help them develop different areas of their reading skills. Usually, high-quality literature serve as venues to widen one’s vocabulary and to practice the students’ comprehension skills. The program can therefore integrate these type of literature, and to make the material less intimidating, it can be helpful to read aloud to the students, to use the cited literature as integral to a specific set of instructional objectives and other classroom programs, and to further enhance the students’ motivation and interests by exposing them to something new and special.
Principle Ten: Model Effective Reading Behaviors
In order for students to fully appreciate reading and to have them be in the know of the proper reading behaviors, it is critical that the teacher establishes a model of appropriate and effective reading behaviors. This can be seen in certain actions such as knowing how to use the different parts of the book, how to skim and scan, and how effectively use the material as a source of new knowledge (i.e. taking down notes, looking up words in the dictionary, etc.)
Principle Eleven: Stimulate Motivation and Engagement
By stimulating motivation and engagement, the teacher will not only encourage the students to participate in class but they will also feel motivated and engaged in doing some reading on their own without relying on the homework given to them at school.
Principle Twelve: Cooperate With the Classroom Teacher
It should be instilled among the students that cooperating with the classroom teacher will better the lives of everyone inside the classroom. Cooperating with the classroom teacher means greater involvement and engagement, thus, the students will be able to appreciate the classroom activities and their learning process will be more significant.
Principle Thirteen: Enlist Parent Involvement
Parents should be also involved in the reading development of their children. Examples are encouraging parents to buy their children books outside the classroom or at least to buy helpful reading materials at home such as newspapers and magazines. This shows that an encouraging and positive home environment can also contribute to the skills development of the student.
Principle Fourteen: Let Research Guide Your Instruction
Instruction should not be stuck to a prescribed set of strategies and programs. Teachers have the opportunity to become creative in their classrooms and to make use of tools that he or she thinks will further help the students get more motivated and enthusiastic in their reading class. Examples of research may include integrating pop culture elements.