Sciences, Arts, and Humanities in the Twentieth Century Essay

Introduction

            An outburst of quiescence in major developments of sciences, arts, and humanities, from the twentieth century, reveals the intricacies of communication, civilization, and cognitive state as these oppose themselves and one another. Such peculiar transposition may yield an ordeal on postmodernism despite the absence of its conceptualization. For a better comprehension with regard to this view, it is imperative to give light on a few queries below.

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            Will it be easy for every individual to comprehend the real occurrences, which need to be acknowledged from the modernism? If so, will the provisory authoritative rule of conduct or procedure of postmodernism provide accurate function? Can he or she—or even should he or she under the present circumstances and/or situations—build of such an occurrence a few exploratory contrivance, both sequential and classified, which may constitute for its diversified tendencies and countertrends; its aesthetic, epistemological and communal personality? Moreover, in what strategic or methodological ways does this occurrence—critics call it postmodernism—impart per se into such old-fashioned methods of modification as transition from previous century to a group, which is active in the invention and application of new techniques in a given field, especially in the sciences and arts? Eventually, what drastic occurrences take place throughout the re-conceptualization of time in the twentieth century as highlighted by major developments in the sciences, the arts, and the humanities?

            Given the questions above, not every individual has the capabilities to define the real purport of such a matter of argument; thus, he or she may not answer such queries that need empirical bases, as the global contemporary issues and concerns with regard to the re-conceptualization of time in the Twentieth century are involved. Hence, this paper is created in order to give light on the facts and key to answer such questions by unfolding the real occurrences, which have taken place in the twentieth century. Furthermore, it provides a more comprehensive outline of the radical re-conceptualization of time in the twentieth century as highlighted by major developments in the field of sciences, arts, and humanities.

An Overview of the Twentieth Century

            Twentieth century has always been believed as the beginning of the radical changes in different areas of human ventures (Soames 127). This can be proved by salient change in the way that the number of people lived, as a more advantageous outcome of technological and ideological introduction of the newfangled tools and gadgets. Historical accounts play a valuable part in the realization of this entity.

            Such era has given birth to the radical innovations in various means. In terms of science and technology, the existence of the theories of relativity and quantum physics has been acknowledged. The discovery of these two hypotheses, which have been assumed for the sake of argument or investigation, has changed the world-renown conceptualizations of the famous scientists prior to the twentieth century (Krige and Pestre). Such more advanced ideologies (theory of relativity and quantum physics) concerning the universe have become the way for the number of scientists to be acquainted with the fact that the universe was incredibly more multifarious than the old beliefs of people. It is explained with the aid of Albert Einstein; bringing his theory before the number of scientists and critics, he tried to divulge the essence of his newly developed theory, which was later called ‘theory of relativity’ that has been comprised into two principles. The first one concerns the special relativity in which the theory of the structure of space-time is distinguished (Einstein and Lawson).

            This theory has shaped the new belief of the scientists with regard to the accuracy of the structure of space-time. He, therefore, explained the significance of special relativity through his idea that the laws and/or principles of physics  are both the same for all types of observers based on the inertial frame of reference. Moreover, he showed that the light’s speed, when it is in an ideal volume of space (vacuum), is just the same for all types of observers (not to mention their relative movement or of the movement of where the light comes from).

            Therefore, by doing so, Einstein was able to come up with the resultant theory in which numerous scientists has believed to be the accurate standards of certain object’s relativity. He has come along the way to give birth to the relativity of simultaneity, which shows that the two circumstances or occurrences, occurring or existing at the same time for some observer, may not occur or exist at the same time for another observer when such observers are within the bounds of relative movement. In addition to the explanation of the phase and/or structure of his first resultant theory, he has come up with another belief concerning the so-called time dilation. It shows that moving clocks are calculated to a light rhythmic audible tap or beat that are slower than an observer’s clock, which never changes its condition, according to the Britannica Online Encyclopedia. He also showed that objects are calculated to be abridged in the course that they are producing or transferring motion or action with respect to the observer, Length Contraction. However, the most famous resultant theory, which he has contributed, is that which concerns the mass-energy equivalence. He then tried elaborating his ideas with regard to the fact that energy and mass are both the same and/or equal in any means and, therefore, these are able to change or alter in form, appearance, or nature and especially to a higher form with the use of his developed formula: E = mc2.

            Another development concerning the field of sciences is that which concerns Einstein’s general relativity in connection to his previous theory. While the first category of his theory was about the space-time and its respective equivalence, he, therefore, has concluded that from such equivalence might an inertial motion be developed. Consequently, it has been determined that since acceleration is the rate of change of velocity, the gravitational might be given certain approaches concerning the way on how to give weight to a particular object. For instance, when a person stands on the surface of the Earth, it then becomes physically being the same. For a better comprehension with regard to the entire view of such a conceptualization, a particular object in free fall may directly fall for a reason that it clings to the same method of how certain objects are moved despite the absence of force, which is being employed on them. Hence, the number of scientists has acknowledged the force of gravity.

Progress throughout the Twentieth Century

            Hastening the progress or development in the field of sciences throughout twentieth century, the scientific comprehension, a more advanced and methodological systems of communications and speedier means of conveyance or travel from one place to another have drastically changed the entire world from manual transactions into a more sophisticated ways of living. This century has been considered as the mother who has given birth to the steam-powered ships; killed the existence of such an invention in order to give way for another newfangled discovery—the space shuttle (Singer 173). Additionally, even the more improved ways of local transportations of the Western society has begun from this century—the previous large solid-hoofed herbivorous ungulate mammal, the horse family, domesticated since prehistoric times and used as a draft animal, or for riding, has been changed into automobiles. Such improvements in different ways have been acknowledged through the large-scale manipulation and/or commercialization of a hydrocarbon deposit, such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas, derived from living matter of a previous geologic time and used for fuel. As such, these methodological systems of seeking resources from different parts of the world have revolutionized the world, as it proffered large amounts of vitality and intensity of expression. Moreover, some people, during this era, have been able to investigate systematically and to search into or travel in for making discovery concerning the outer space; thus, they have successfully reached the Moon due to the more sophisticated new inventions on the communication and technologies.

            Developments in Communication and Technologies

            The number of critics and savants argues with the progress of the world when it comes to the developments of communications and technologies. It concerns the rise and existence of the world’s most significant contributions—a means of public communication, which reaches a large audience; the science of sending messages, information etc by telephone, telegraph, radio, television etc.; and the development, installation, and implementation of computer systems and applications. These significant contributions have revolutionized every society, which has become the mere reason of the existence of knowledge. Due to this circumstance, a number of businesspeople have become more successful as they have been able to reach other businesses and market their own firms overseas in an easier manner. As a result, it has become quite easy for a number of countries to become fully industrialized with the assistance of the other countries from different parts of the world. Moreover, numerous people have become more acquainted with the ordeal or discomfort of old way of living, as such, made a variety of national laws and regulations with regard to the view of human rights.

            In mid-20th century, a number of people have become educated; thus, they have been able to learn the significance of conserving the planet Earth. They made a variety of methodological ways in order to avoid the possible damages that may take place on the planet. Every group of people has made its own way of conserving the world’s community of organisms together with their physical environment. It has been viewed as a system of interacting and interdependent relationships and including such processes as the flow of energy through tropic levels and the cycling of chemical elements and compounds through living and nonliving components of the system (qtd. in Britannica Online Encyclopedia). Developments in terms of medical technology have been also acknowledged during the whole course of this century. The number of years that an individual is expected to live as determined by statistics has become longer due to the more sophisticated devices and/or instruments, which have been used during the whole course of the undertaking. Moreover, the world has been formed by blending unlike elements especially by reducing one element to particles and dispersing them throughout another substance, as the issue with regard to the culture is more concerned.

            Due to ongoing developments of industry on an extensive scale and expanding commercial transactions, numerous significant modifications or shifts during the whole course of the twentieth century have become financially rewarding and successful based in scientific and industrial progress. Moreover, discoveries in the field of science have become more progressive with the help of the number of educated and learned scientists during this century. These are the inventions of electronics such as radio, television, computers and other machines, which use electricity. In business and finance, development has been obviously acknowledged and distinguished by the most critics in the field. Global contemporary concerns with regard to such a bountiful way of marketing have been controversial due to the extant issues that a wide range of business firms from different parts of the world have been able to garnered the most number of profits or gross annual income, according to the Business Week 1982 (McGraw-Hill). Nevertheless, despite the issue with regard to the real profitability throughout the twentieth century, it becomes a global controversial that numerous people from small countries are experiencing difficulties in the way of living.

            Analysis of the Twentieth Century with the World-renown Contributors

            As an analysis of the entire view with regard to the conceptualization of the twentieth century, it becomes quite easy to determine the significant contributions of the world’s most famous key figures, people having expert knowledge of one or more sciences, especially a natural or physical. These scientists or inventors have shaped the people’s mind concerning the existence of modernism. One of these contributions is that concern Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity in which through this hypothesis, people, particularly the number of scientists have been convinced that there is the presence of motion and force of gravity on Earth.

            Moreover, in the field of arts, cubism is known as a style of art, which has been created by two well-known painters Pablo Picasso and George Braque. This type of art shows motion through time, which signifies that instead of painting someone stiff, the artist will coat these to where they seemed to move (Vines). Additionally, these are broken paintings; when somebody analyzes and puts it together in a nonrepresentational or intangible way instead of making the picture from one figure formed by two lines diverging from a common point, the artist then draws the picture from piles of various views in order to show the essence of object in a more comprehensive manner. Hence, this type of art has shaped the twentieth century, as a number of people has been able to discover the secret of tricks when it comes to the art of painting.

            In the field of humanities during the whole course of the twentieth century, Sigmund Freud and Jorge Luis Borges have been acknowledged due to their remarkable contributions. The former has been able to acknowledged due to his theories of unconscious mind and the defense mechanism of repression; he was then distinguished because of his redefinition of sexual desire. The latter has also been able to contribute in shaping the twentieth century through his studies, which have been intended to provide general knowledge and intellectual skills (Vines).

Works Cited

Britannica Online Encyclopedia. “Ecosystem.” March 13, 2009. Babylon             Dictionary and

            Translation Software.

Britannica Online Encyclopedia. “Time Dilation (Physics).” March 13, 2009. Babylon

            Dictionary and Translation Software.

Einstein, Albert and Robert Lawson. Relativity: the special and general theory. Published by

            Hartsdale House, 1920, Original from the University of Michigan, 2007. 168 pages.

Krige, John and Dominique Pestre. Science in the Twentieth Century. London: Published by Taylor & Francis, 1997. 941 pages.

McGraw-Hill. “Business Week 1982.” Published by University of Michigan, 2007.

Singer, Edward. 20th Century Revolutions in Technology. Published by Nova Science Pub.,

            1998, Original from the University of Michigan, 440 pages.

Soames, Scott. Philosophical Analysis In The Twentieth Century: The Dawn Of Analysis. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2005. 432 pages.

Vines, Lois. “Poe abroad: influence, reputation, affinities.” Published by University of Iowa

            Press, 1999. 275 pages.

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