Abandonment – the act of withdrawing support of help from another person, in spite of duty or responsibility Abdominal thrust – also called the Heimlich maneuver; it is used to clear an obstructed airway in an adult or a child older than 1 year old who is choking Abduction pillow – When a person is recovering from hip joint replacement surgery, an abduction pillow is used to help prevent the hip joint from becoming dislocated during the recover period. Abuse – intentional act that causes harm to another person Accidents – an unexpected, unintended event that has the potential to cause bodily injury
Activities – are bodily activities that help enhance or maintain physical fitness and overall health Adaptive devices – are any structure, design, instrument, contrivance, or equipment that enables a person with a disability to function independently. Examples include plate guards, grab bars, and transfer boards. Also called self-help device – Are devices that are used to assist with completing activities of daily living Activities of daily living (ADLs) – routine tasks of daily life, such as bathing, eating, and grooming Admission – The process by which patients enter into inpatient care
Admitting resident – A physician receiving specialized clinical training in a hospital, usually after completing an internship. Affected side – the part of the body that is affected. Aging process – is senescence or biological aging which is the change in the biology of an organism as it ages. The aging process depends on a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Recognizing that every individual has his or her own unique genetic makeup and environment, which interact with each other, helps us understand why the aging process can occur at such different rates in different people.
Agitation – Agitation often accompanies dementia and often precedes the diagnosis of common age- related disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). More than 80% of people who develop AD eventually become agitated or aggressive. – When a person with dementia is agitated, he may pace, shout, or strike out at caregivers or other residents. People with dementia often lose their ability to communicate effectively with others. So they express themselves through behavior.
Alternating pressure mattress – An alternating pressure air flotation mattress is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a mattress with multiple air cells that can be filled and emptied in an alternating pattern by an associated control unit to provide regular, frequent, and automatic changes in the distribution of body pressure. The device is used to prevent and treat ulcers (bed sores). Alzheimer’s disease – the most common type of dementia; characterized by the permanent and progressive loss of the ability to think and remember caused by damage to the brain
Ambulation – to walk ; defined as ability to walk from place to place independently with or without assistive device Amputees – are people that have all or part of a body extremity removed by trauma or surgery Anger – one of the stages of grief; the person realizes that she is actually going to die as a result of her illness and has feelings of rage, which may be directed toward himself or others Antiembolic stockings – Antiembolic stockings are also known as gradient elastic stockings. They come in a variety of sizes depending on the size of a patient’s leg and foot.
They are usually prescribed by a doctor for those most at risk of developing blood clots in the legs or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) Anxiety – feeling of uneasiness, dread, apprehension, or worry Aphasia – a general term for a group of disorders that affect a person’s ability to communicate with others; may be expressive (an inability to form words) or receptive (an inability to understand words); often occurs following a stroke Appropriate response – reporting to families in a appropriate way Arthritis – inflammation of joints, usually associated with pain and stiffness
Aseptic – Aseptic technique refers to a procedure that is performed under sterile conditions. Assistive devices – devices that make certain tasks (such as walking, eating, or dressing) easier for a person with a disability Axillary temperature – An axillary temperature is when your armpit (axilla) is used to check your temperature. Back strain – A low back muscle strain occurs when the muscle fibers are abnormally stretched or torn; the low back is involved in nearly everything you do, and therefore is susceptible to injury. Most of the time, back strains are caused by lifting heavy objects with a bent spine.
Bacteria – bacteria cause many infections in the health care setting. Most bacteria consist of only one cell, and reproduce by dividing in half. Although bacteria usually consist of only one cell, they often group together to form colonies; are a large domain of single-celled, prokaryote microorganisms Bargaining – one of the stages of grief; the person wants to “make a deal” with someone he or she feels has control over his or her fate, such as God or a health care provider Basic needs – A need is something that is essential for a person’s physical and mental health.
Maslow defined what he thought to be the basic human needs, and then arranged them in a pyramid to show that certain needs are more basic than other needs. Maslow’s pyramid reflects his belief that the more basic, lower-level needs must be met, to some degree, before the higher-level needs can be met. People who are ill, injured, or disabled must rely on the help of the health care team to make sure that their needs are met. Outlined in pages 91 – 96 in text. Basic skin care – Biology Online defines basic skin care as maintaining clean, comfortable and ealthy skin through thorough cleansing with soap and water, and moisturizing with emollients. Basic skin care also includes treating skin conditions appropriately with medicines and lotions, and avoiding sun exposure. Age is a factor in skin care. Special consideration should be given to infants, senior adults and the infirm. Bathing – Bathing serves many purposes. The act of bathing: helps a person feel relaxed and refreshed, cleans the skin and eliminated body odors, helps the patient of resident meet the needs of love and belonging and self-esteem, etc.
Bathing resident – it’s the resident of a nursing home who is being bathed/ cleaned Bed Cradle – a metal frame that is placed between the bottom and top sheets to keep the top sheet, the blanket, and the bedspread away from the person’s feet; used when pressure on the person’s feet could result in pain or skin breakdown Bed height – the height of the bed vertically Bed position – the position of the bed. For example, Fowler’s position Bedpan – a device used for elimination when a person is unable to get out of bed; women use a bedpan for both urination and bowel movements; men use a bedpan for bowel movements only
Bladder training – Bladder training may help a patient to regain continence by strengthening the brain’s control over the lower urinary tract. Training requires a patient to practice both inhibiting and initiating voiding (urination) on a specific schedule. Initially, the time allotted between episodes of urination is brief. But, this interval is then gradually increased during training until a patient achieves a voiding pattern that lacks episodes of incontinence or problems controlling urgency. – Bladder training is a way of learning to manage urinary incontinence (is the loss of bladder control).
It is generally used for stress incontinence, urge incontinence or a combination of the 2 types (mixed incontinence). Stress incontinence is when urine leaks because of sudden pressure on your lower stomach muscles, such as when you cough, laugh, lift something or exercise. Urge incontinence is when the need to urinate comes on so fast that you can’t get to a toilet in time. Fowler’s position – a semi-sitting position; the head of the bed is raised between 45 and 60 degrees Fraud – a deliberate deception intended to produce unlawful gain Free from disease – aseptic
Frequent urination – polyuria Gait belt – device used to transfer people from one position to another or from one thing to another. For example you would use a gait belt to move a patient from a standing position to a wheelchair Gastric feedings – feeding provided through a tube directly into the stomach Gastrostomy tube – a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach Geriatrics – the branch of medical science that deals with diseases and problems specific to old people Gestures – the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another
Gloves – to protect yourself from infections or spread of disease Grieving process – denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance Hair care – dry as quickly as posible after shampooing, shampoo depends on care plan, keep shampoo out of eyes, do not cut to remove matting Hallucination – delusion; false idea; false perception of objects with a compelling sense of their reality; objects so perceived; V. hallucinate; ADJ. hallucinatory Hand tremors – movement of hands uncontrollable Hand washing – Do this thoroughly when finished with the activity. Use antibacterial soap and warm water.
Lather both sides of your hands and between your fingers. Rinse well. Hearing aid – a conical acoustic device formerly used to direct sound to the ear of a hearing-impaired person Hearing impaired – unable to hear or hear well Hearing loss – partial or complete loss of hearing Hemiplegia – partial or complete loss of hearing HIV – infection by the human immunideficiency virus Hospice care – treatment of the terminally ill in their own homes, or in special hospital units or other facilities, with the goal of helping them to die comfortably, without pain Hydration – Maintenance of body fluid balance
Ice bag – a waterproof bag filled with ice: applied to the body (especially the head) to cool or reduce swelling Ileostomy – creation of a new opening through the abdominal wall into the ileum Immune system – a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response Impairment – damage that results in a reduction of strength or quality Incontinence – inability to control bladder and/or bowels Indwelling catheter – a catheter that stays in the bladder for a period of time.
Infection – an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted Infection control – practices and procedures that prevent the spread of infection Input and output – Oral Fluids- 1100-1400, Solid Food-800-1000 and oxidative metabolism 300ml and OUTPUT- Kidneys 1200-1500, skin 500-600 lungs 400 and GI 100-200 TOTAL IN- 2200-2700 TOTAL LOSSES- 2200-2700 Insulin – Hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when stimulated by elevated glucose levels. This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen or fat for storage.
Intake – the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating) Intake and output – is one tool to assess fluid status by keeping a record of a client’t fluid intake and fluid loss overa a 24-hour period. Integumentary system – the skin and its appendages Isolation – keeping an infected person in the hospital or staying at home in bed when suffering form a disease as a way of controlling the transmission of infectious diseases IV care – cleaning around the IV site while refraining from tugging or putting strain on the IV or tubing. Laxatives – medications that stimulate bowel activity and assist fecal limination Life support – of or pertaining to equipment or measures that sustain or artificially substitute for essential body functions, as breathing or disposal of body wastes Lift/ draw sheet – a small, flat sheet that is placed over the middle of the bottom sheet, covering the area of the bed from above the person’s shoulders to below his or her buttocks Linen – white goods or clothing made with linen cloth Liquid diet – consist of liquids (a liquid is described as food that is fluid at room temperature or becomes liquid at room temperature Listening – paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear
Low sodium diet – This type of diet is good for those with heart disease or kidney disease. Making occupied bed – a bed made while a person is in the bed. Mask – prevents the spread of microbes to the resporitary tract Maslow – Humanist psychologist who developed a pyramid representing heirarchy of human needs. Measuring temperature – We measure temperature with degrees F or C Mechanical soft diet – Gets its name from foods prepared with blenders, food processors, or cutting utensils. Makes food easier to chew Medical record – written account of a persons condition and response to treatment ; care
Medications – drugs that are administered to a patient who is sick or in pain Memory loss – indicative of aging process and neurologic or psychiatric disease such as Alzheimer’s, depression, or stroke. Mentally impaired – a disorder that affects a person’s mind, causing the person to act in unusual ways, experience emotional difficulties or both Microorganisms – Living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye Mistreatment – treated badily or abusively Mobility – All types of movement from one location to another. Morning care – Care given after breakfast; hygiene measures are more thorough at this time
Mouth care – cleaning the teeth of a peron in the moring and at night; also sometimes after eating a meal Moving – to go from one place to another Multiple scelerosis – A chronic disease of the central nervous system marked by damage to the myelin sheath. Plaques occur in the brain and spinal cord causing tremor, weakness, incoordination, paresthesia, and disturbances in vision and speech Musculoskeletal system – the system of muscles and tendons and ligaments and bones and joints and associated tissues that move the body and maintain its form Nail care – involves keeping the fingernails and toenails clean and trimmed
Neglect – failure to act with the prudence that a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstances Non-contagious disease – not readily transmitted from one host to another Nonverbal communication – communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech NPO – nothing by mouth (nil per os) Nursing assistant’s role – to help with ADLs and aid the patient with day to day treatment Nutrition – process of receiving food to grow and be healthy Objective – not influenced by emotion or personal prejudice; based only on what can be observed
Occupied bed – bed with a patient in it Ombudsman – a government appointee who investigates complaints by private persons against the government Oral care – care of the mouth, teeth, and gums. Oral hygience – prevents mouth oder and pyorrhea, do more than once a day, every 2 hours for unconcious Orientation – a person’s awareness of self with regard to position and time and place and personal relationships Osteoporosis – A disease of gradual bone loss, which can cripple people in later life Overbed table – the resident eats from and/or places their personal things on
Oxygen – gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells Pain – A symptom of some physical hurt or disorder Paralysis – temporary or permanent loss of motor control Paranoia – a psychological disorder characterized by delusions of persecution or grandeur Parkinson’s – a chronic, progressive disease that affect the brain area that controls movement Partial assistance – Helping a patient who can do some things for themselves. Partial bath – washing the face, hands, under arms, back, buttocks, and perineal
Passive – not reacting visibly to something that might be expected to produce manifestations of an emotion or feeling. Pathogens – an organism that produces disease in a host organism disease being alteration of one or more metabolic functions in response to the presence of the organism Patience – A willingness to wait for someone or something without complaining Perineal care – Cleaning the genital and anal areas; pericare Personal belongings – items that belong to the resident Personal care – Look and smell clean, brush teeth, comb hair, neat clothing.
Personal items – Items that are primarily for the comfort of the pt and are not medically necessary. Personal protective equipment – Equipment used to protect a person from exposure to blood or other body fluids. Phone etiquette – answer the phone promptly and kindly, speak properly,give caller undivided attention,speak clearly,be courteous,ask permission from caller to place them on hold, and never allow an angry caller to upset you remain calm and composed Physical needs – the most basic needs, including food, water, clothing, shelter and sleep Physicians authority – By authority of the MD
Positioning resident – moving the resident Post mortem care – care given to the body immediately after death Pressure ulcers – any lesion caused by unrelieved pressure that results in damage to underlying tissue; aka decubitus ulcers, bed sores, pressure sores. Any injury caused by unrelived pressure – poor skin care & immobility Preventing falls – do fall assesment on every patient, keep bed low wheels locked and bed rails up, call button near bed, non skid footwear and instruct client properly Preventing injury – Telling the client what they need to do to stop what has happened fromo happening again.
Privacy – the quality of being secluded from the presence or view of others Progressive – the advance of a condition as signs and symptoms increase in severity Projection – psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others Prosthesis – Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity Protective equipment – cover gowns, face protection devices, air filter respirators, gloves Psychological needs – a patients mental needs Pulse – beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries
Radial – Lateral aspect of the forearm Range of motion – movement of joints through all normal motions Rationalization – (psychiatry) a defense mechanism by which your true motivation is concealed by explaining your actions and feelings in a way that is not threatening Rectal – Measurement of body temperature taken in the rectum Rehabilitation – the process of restoring or bringing to a healthy, useful state Religious service – the act of public worship following prescribed rules Reminiscing – recalling past experiences, usually in a positive and reflective way
Reporting –oral account of care and observations Reposition resident – moving the resident to to make the comfortable and to prevent pressure ulcers Resident abuse – mistreatment of a resident usualy involving mental or physical attacks Resident belongings – items belonging to the resident Resident identification – any means of determining the residents identity Resident independence – incouraging the patient to do ADL on their own Resident unit – a single resident Resident’s Bill of Rights – rights guaranteed under the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) to residents in long-term care.
Resident’s chart – a chart ,that must be kept confidential, that gives medical history of a particular patient Resident’s environment – the surroundings that best suit a particular resident Respectful treatment – the proper way that a nursing assistant should treat a resident Respirations – reflect the breathing rate of the patient Respiratory symptoms – hypoventilation, rapid shallow respirations, increased blood pressure, dyspnea, headache, hyperkalemia, disorentation, increased cardiac output, muscle weakness and hypoxia Respiratory system – system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide using the lungs
Responding to resident behavior – always be respectful and courteous to the resident Restorative care – Care that helps persons regain their health, strength, and independence Restraints – methods of restricting a person’s freedom of movement, physical activity, or normal access to his or her body Rights – freedoms that are protected by a government’s laws Scabies – Contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite, commonly through sexual contact Scale – pattern, make, regulate, set, measure, or estimate according to some rate or standard Secretions – sweat, oil, wax, used in the nonspecific external barrier
Security – A feeling of being free from fear, danger, etc. Seizure – sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses (may or may not be associated with convulsion) Self-esteem – one’s feelings of high or low self-worth Sensory system – The system of nerves which carries information from the body’s receptors to the CNS Sexual harassment – comments, gestures, or physical contacts of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome Sexual needs – the sexual needs or desires of a resident Sharps container – OSHA required receptacle for the proper disposal of sharps
Shaving – the act of removing hair with a razor Shearing of skin – when skin sticks to a surface while muscles slide in the direction the body is moving Simple fracture – an uncomplicated fracture in which the broken bones to not pierce the skin Skin integrity – very important in infection control Slander – words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another Smoking – Harms the lungs and the transfer of O2 to the blood. Social needs – concerned with love, friendship, status, and esteem Specimen – sample of tissue or fluid Spiritual needs – helping patients develop awareness and maintain self awarness. ifes meaning and purpose, relationship to others, and relationship to a higher power.
Standard precautions – precautions developed by the CDC that ensures that unversial precautions and body substance isolation practices Sterilization – the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means) Stress – the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging Stroke – a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain
Suicide – act of killing one’s self Sundowning – Signs, symptoms, and behaviors of AD increase during hours of darkness. Sundowning is the worsening of a person’s behavioral symptoms in the late afternoon and evening, as the sun goes down. Stytolic – measurement of blood pressure taken when the heart is contracting and forcing blood into the arteries TED hose – elastic stocking to be worn for 8 hours to prevent swelling antiembolic stockings Telephone etiquette – Set of skills and attitudes used when answering the phone that allows the assistant to sound alert, interested, and concerned.
Temperature – the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity) Terminal illness – an illness or injury for which there is no reasonable expectation of recovery Threatening resident – a resident who is angered and may or may not become violent Toileting schedule – care planned scheduled times to take resident to bathroom as part of intervention to decrease incontinence Transfers – use drawshhet, never slide pt; move them toward patient’s stronger side (if there is one) easier for pt to pull weaker side; use legs for lifting! Treating residents with respect – always be kind and courteous
Tub bath – patient is submerged, more thorough wash, can require sone assistance from the RN Tube feeding – Provision of food to the stomach through a tube (nose or small intestine) Unaffected – Side cane should be used on unconscious – not conscious; not aware of what is going on unethical behavior – behavior that does not conform to generally accepted social norms concerning beneficial and harmful actions urethral – pertaining to the urethra urinary catheter bag – a bag that is attatched to the bed or the patients leg that is used to collect urine from an immobile or incintinent patient rinary problems – structural, autoimmune, cancerous, or infections urinary system – removes waste products from blood and maintains water balance within body urine – Fluid wastes removed from the body by the kidneys vision change – most often the loss of vision over time vital signs
– Determinations that provide information about body conditions; include temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure vomitus – food and fluids expelled from the stomach through the mouth; emesis walker – a device used to assist with walking andering resident – Many long term care facilities that specialize in the care of people with dementia have enclosed areas outdoors where people can wander and pace safely weighing – A person’s weight is measured on admission, and on transfer or discharge. A person’s weight is rechecked periodically also for various reasons. Weight can be measured using an upright scale, a chair scale, or using a sling scale weight – the relationship of a person’s weight to his height can provide insight into the person’s overall health and nutritional status.
In addition, a person’s weight is often used to calculate medication dosages. In some cases, a change in a person’s weight might indicate that the person’s condistion is getting worse, or that it is getting better. For all these reasons, it is useful to obtain a “baseline” height and weight for each patient or resident, and to measure the person’s weight periodically. wheelchair safety – Always lock brakes when transferring withdrawn resident – an introverted, not readily approached, emotionally unresponsive and detached resident