Now that a dog and a sheep has been cloned, can human cloning be that far behind? How is cloning important to future therapeutic medical advances, such as safe organ transplant? Human cloning research holds the answer to these questions. But still, the development of human cloning are slow and tough as it faces great challenges from the society that concern about moral and ethical abuse that the fallout of human cloning may produce. According to Elmer-Dewitt (1993)”A line had been crossed. A taboo broken. A Brave New World of cookie-cutter humans, baked and bred to order,seemed,if not just around the corner, then just over the horizon”.
This citation shows how concern the author is about the development of human cloning. There are many challenges that present to curb the rapid development of human cloning. The challenges are, it is against certain religious perspective, threaten human ‘oneness’ and ethics, , against human moral perspective and restrictions imposed by the government. The fundamental and core element of resistance against human cloning is the skeptical perspective of religious group around the world. To religious group, scientist attempts in human cloning are a blasphemous attempt by human to play god.
These narrow-minded views on human cloning were based on the belief that human cloning development were solely researching on recreating another human being using unnatural method. According to Ranjbarian and Seyf( 2009)”Most of the world’s religious group took stances on the issue”. It means that the topic of human cloning is so sensitive that majority of religious group on the planet took interest on the subject. Contrary to popular belief, human cloning is not directly researching towards recreating other human being, those are Frankenstein fantasies.
Early studies of human cloning were mostly about generating human stem cells and ways to provide safe organ transfer. But still, the concerns of these religious groups are not misplaced. According to Abul Fadl(2002), there are two main question that religious group have regarding human cloning. The question are “Does human cloning affects belief in God as the creator? ” and “Will such an innovation undermine family relationship and responsibilities? ” . If human cloning ever to become accomplished, it shall be in harmony with the ‘God’s Will’.
The progress of human cloning will not in any possible ways challenging the belief that God as the ‘Ultimate Creator’ because the crucial and prime material use in human cloning such as somatic cells and unfertilized egg were initially the creation of God. For the second question, it is the core principal in any religion to uphold marriage and family as a sacred and the most fundamental of institution. Child born in marriage hold the genetic of their parents and that is the element that gives them their identity.
The genetic-replication are afraid by many religious group to inflicts damage upon marital and child-parent relationship and thus, will end the purity of the family institution. While it is true that human cloning will solve infertility issue, we also have to consider the fact that 277 attempts were done by Ian Wilmut before they finally succeed in cloning Dolly the Sheep. Human being, which without a doubt will have much more complicated gene compare to a sheep will surely needed more attempts before accomplish something.
This will indubitably follow-on with a lot of death and miscarriage which cause a major moral issue. Mankind has always been distinguished with one another by unique physical and personality. Many afraid that human cloning will threaten this uniqueness and abuse the ethical rights of human being. Annas (1998) states that the ‘uniqueness’ of every human, something that is important to mankind will be lost through human cloning. It means that the genetic duplication of human being would drastically change the very characteristics of a human being as we know it.
Through asexually duplicating a living or dead human being, scientist can construct a world’s first individual with a single inherent (genetic) parent which in turn, abrogate the saying that ‘Every human is unique’. Also, human cloning defy one of the most major moral protest against reproductive human cloning, the violation of a person’s right to a distinctive genetic identity. However, this argument can be rule out as there exist twins with the same genetic identity which can live with their own identity. According to Majdah(2002), cloning advocate has raise an argument that environment and nurturing around erson, for example twins that boast matching genetic make-up, that make the person unique not the genes. Moral factor is also one of the main contributors of challenges toward human cloning. Majority of people around the world views human cloning as an abomination, something that is against the human moral and norm. For those of us who fancy to believe that the ‘cloned embryo’ has an evolving and ‘intermediate’ moral condition, the researchers that pursue to unfold cloned embryos past the blastocyst stage are highly genuine cause to worry about(The President’s Council of Bioethics,2002).
It means that it is highly immoral for scientist to conduct experiment on embryo, which some people may believe have already began developing form and consciousness, and in that case makes it no different than experimenting on grown human which is restricted according to Declaration of Geneva that is establish during the Nuremberg Trials due to Nazi experimentation on human during World War 2. Human cloning will not only gravely set a direct risk to the very description of the fabrication of human being itself, but also will create discord to customary family bond(Majdah,2009).
This shows that human cloning provide a threat so serious, that even a slightest mistake on moral ethics could lead to a full-scale uproar from the society. All of the above factor of challenge leads to one ultimate challenge, the restriction impose by the government(administration). Because of the rate of concern shown by the society on the topic of human cloning, the government were forced to take action to control the development and research regarding human cloning.
Other than enervating’ the social constructs and civil institutions’ that assist to nourish the practice of individuals right and to suppress the ‘manipulation’ of individuals, it also weakening the perceptive of free wills (Andrews, 1998). To prevent such situation from happening, many of the world government have imposed a ban on human cloning research, and few research that were allowed were monitored closely by the government.
Among the first state to broadcast public ban on human cloning research is the United States of America, by President Clinton, under the reason that cloning procedure remain untested and are unsafe to be conduct on human being as it may cause incurable or infectious diseases therefore violate important ethical obligations. But, Cahill (2009) states that, if the act of cloning presence a luminous and pressings hazard to the public then the liberty of researchers and individual couple who might select to reproduce by cloning should be blocked.
It shows that, human cloning research not being ban unless the researcher did things that is immoral and would likely to put them under ban. Human cloning is a delicate and fascinating subject that faces multiple challenges from society, religious, and administrations that could lead to permanent banning on the subject if the researcher put a toe across the line, but human cloning has its benefit that could only be unlocked if continuous study are done on the subject.
Abul Fadl, M. (2002). Bioethics:Ethics In The Biotechnology Century. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia.
Andrews, L. B. (1998). Is There a Right to Clone? Harvard Journal Law , 657-668.
Annas, G. J. (1998). Human Cloning:A Choice Or An Echo. University of Dayton Law Review , 247-277.
Bioethics, T. P. (2002). Human Cloning and Human Dignity:An Ethical Inquiry. Washington,DC: The President’s Council on Bioethics.
Cahill, S. L. (1999). No Human Cloning:A Social Ethics Perspective. Hofstra Law Review , 487-502.
Gilbert, C. (2007). Deja Vu for a Bush Stem Veto. Time.
Kass, L. R., Elizabeth, B. H., Stephen, C. L., Rebecca, D. S., Daniel, F. W., Francis, F., et al. (2002). Human Cloning and Human Dignity:An Ethical Inquiry. Washington, DC: The President’s Council On Bioethics.
Majdah, Z. (2002). Human Cloning-Ethical and Legal Perspective. In A. B. Adbul Majeed, Bioethics:Ethics in the Biotechnology Century (pp. 123-160). Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia.