The Structure Of The Nigerian Financial System Commerce Essay

The Nigerian fiscal system is made up of two sub sectors ; the formal and the informal bomber sectors. The formal bomber sector comprises of the regulative organic structures, money market, capital market, foreign exchange markets, insurance companies, securities firm houses, sedimentation money Bankss ( DMBs ) , development finance and other fiscal establishments. As at the terminal of March 2010, there were 24 sedimentation money Bankss ( DMBs ) , 5discount houses ( DHs ) , 941 microfinance Bankss ( MFBs ) , 107 finance companies ( FCs ) , 101 primary mortgage establishments ( PMIs ) , 13 pension fund decision makers ( PFAs ) , 5 pension fund keepers ( PFCs ) , 1 stock exchange, 1 trade good exchange, 1621 bureau-de-change operators ( BDCs ) , 690 securities securities firm houses, 5 development finance establishments ( DFIs ) and 73 insurance companies.

The informal bomber sector includes self-help groups, fiscal co-ops and recognition associations.

It is imperative to cognize that there is a weak relationship between the informal bomber sector and the formal bomber sector ( fiscal stableness study, 2010 )

Discount House Sub Sector


Discount Houses in Nigeria were foremost established in 1993. They were licensed to get down operations with merely three price reduction houses as participants. Their figure subsequently increased to five and their foundation can be linked to Great Britain, which is by and large regarded as the beginning of price reduction houses. These establishments evolved to supply a nexus between the Bankss and the Bank of England by functioning as a channel for the interchange of Bankss ‘ financess every bit good as supplying entree to the Bank of England as a loaner of last resort ( Chartered Institute of Bankers of Nigeria, ) and in similar mode price reduction houses in Nigeria are to move as mediators between the Central Bank of Nigeria and other accredited Bankss in Nigeria in Open Market Operations minutess ( Revised Guidelines for Discount Houses, 2004 ) .

There are five price reduction houses in Nigeria entirely owned by pools of Bankss and other fiscal establishments as allowed in the Discount House guidelines 2004 by the Central Bank of Nigeria. However the maximal allowable equity keeping for any individual investor in a price reduction house is 40 % ( Revised Guidelines for Discount Houses, 2004 ) .These Discount Houses are named as follows: Associated Discount House Limited ( ADHL ) , Consolidated Discount Limited ( CDL ) , Express Discount House Limited ( EDL ) , First Securities Discount House Limited ( FSDH ) and Kakawa Discount House Limited ( KDHL ) .They autumn under a common umbrella referred to as Nigerian Discount Market Association. They are soon non listed in the Nigerian Stock Exchange.

The Discount House bomber sector is extremely regulated by the Central Bank of Nigeria and the Securities and Exchange Commission of Nigeria necessitating of them their day-to-day, hebdomadal, quarterly, semi-annual and one-year studies demoing the province of their personal businesss.

Their day-to-day operational activities include the injection and the backdown of financess by the Central bank of Nigeria from the money market through them ( Ezirim and Enefaa, 2010 ) of which they must put 60 % of their sedimentation liabilities in authorities securities at any point in clip ( Revised Guidelines for Discount Houses, 2004 ) .

By this a balance is maintained in the economic system thereby guarding liquidness. Apart from this map, the price reduction houses besides facilitate the issue and sale of short term Government securities, supply discount/re-discount installations for exchequer measures, authorities securities and other eligible fiscal instruments, accept short-run investings on an intermediary footing from Bankss and sweeping investors and in conclusion supply short term fiscal adjustment to Bankss ( Revised Guidelines for Discount Houses, 2004 ) .

Servicess and Financing of the Discount Houses

Discount Houses offer a broad scope of fiscal merchandises to Banks, Non-Bank Financial Institutions and the general populace. The chief services include: ( a ) Securities trading which includes purchasing and merchandising of: Treasury Bills, Treasury Bonds, Government Bonds, and Commercial Bills ; ( B ) Accepting short-run investings from Bankss and supplying short-run adjustment to Bankss ; ( c ) Short-term fiscal intermediation through the credence of financess and coincident investing of the financess in: Commercial Documents, Bankers Credences, Government Securities ; ( vitamin D ) Supplying personalized wealth direction to high net-worth persons through a web of investing directors, fiscal advisers and other specializers ; ( vitamin E ) Effective portfolio direction on both discretional and non-discretionary footing through the proviso of medium to long term investing direction services to: Pension financess, Private clients, Employee Schemes, Trustees of household colonies and charities ; and ( degree Fahrenheit ) Supplying Business Solutions in: Fiscal Arrangement and Management, Mergers and Acquisitions, Privatization, Business Assessment, Business Structuring, and Data Resource and Management ( Revised Guidelines for Discount Houses, 2004 )

The Sources of financess for price reduction houses in Nigeria include: ( a ) Equity – Paid- up Capital and Reserves. ( B ) Name money and short-run adoptions of non more than three old ages adulthood. ( C ) Call money placed by Bankss with price reduction houses shall organize portion of the specified liquid assets of the several Bankss for the intent of the liquidness ratio demand.

A price reduction house that is short of financess may: ( I ) obtain from the Central Bank of Nigeria ( CBN ) an nightlong progress against acceptable collateral. However such an progress shall non transcend 20 per centum of the entire assets of the price reduction house and shall non in any event be granted if the price reduction house has exceeded the adoption bound as prescribed by Central Bank of Nigeria ( CBN ) ; ( two ) sell short-run measures and/or other securities to the Central Bank of Nigeria ( CBN ) . The Central Bank of Nigeria ( CBN ) shall supply rediscounting installations for exchequer and other eligible securities ; and ( three ) enter into Repurchase minutess with the Central Bank of Nigeria ( CBN ) utilizing eligible securities ( Revised Guidelines for Discount Houses, 2008 )

The Discount House Sub-Sector Environment:

The price reduction house sector is greatly influenced and controlled by environmental forces ; planetary and domestic.

The planetary economic environment shows that the planetary economic crisis appeared to hold eased off in the latter portion of 2009 but general optimism is being replaced with pessimism of a dual dip recession, as frights grow that authoritiess and policy shapers around the universe might be forced ( due to coerce or errors ) to take pecuniary and financial props, excessively shortly. So even though developed economic systems are bit by bit get downing to come out of the general recession, the state of affairs is still delicate ( First Securities Discount House, 2009 ) .

In emerging market economic systems, growing has been robust but inflationary force per unit areas are strong and on the rise. The negative impact of the political crises in the oil-producing Middle East and North Africa ( MENA ) part on oil monetary values and the breaks and devastations associated with the temblor and tsunami in Japan have added to uncertainness about the sustainability of planetary economic recovery and growing % ( Central Bank of Nigeria communique No 75, 2011 ) . This has great deductions on the price reduction houses with Nigeria being a development and emerging economic system and the consequence of the planetary crises is strongly felt with a chance of additions in the international involvement rate.

The domestic economic environment is being characterised by a fluctuating rising prices rate which has important impact on involvement and loaning rates. It has been a powerful undertaking seeking to convey down the rising prices rate to a individual figure as proposed and instead the rate rose from 11.1 % as at March, 2011 to 12.8 % in April, 2011 ( Nigeria Bureau of Statistics, 2011 ) . This inflationary rise still has a inclination to rise farther as a consequence of the general addition in planetary and nutrient monetary values.

The operating economic environment is full of challenges as there are array of issues. In March 2011, the Monetary Policy Committee of the Central Bank increased MPR from 6.5 % to 7.5 % keeping involvement rate corridor of +/-2 % around the MPR. By this, the Standing Lending Facility Rate ( rate at which CBN lends to Banks and Discount Houses as bank of last resort ) became 9.5 % and has remained so. On the other manus, the Standing Deposit Rate ( rate at which Banks and Discount Houses topographic point extra financess with the Central Bank of Nigeria ) remained at 4 % .

Besides the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) was projected to turn by 7.43 per cent in the first one-fourth of 2011 doing the mentality for 2011 to be by and large good, given the expected betterment in the oil economic system and the turning accent on the development of non-oil sector and cardinal substructure ( Central Bank of Nigeria communique No 75, 2011 ) .

Finally on the political scene, the twelvemonth 2011 being an election twelvemonth for Nigeria, there are a batch uncertainnesss associated with the electoral procedure and the election consequences and this could impact the price reduction house bomber sector and the Nigerian economic system as a whole and it is projected that the consequence of these uncertainnesss will ensue in higher exchange rate hazards with lower militias and high spending-currency devaluation possible and that Inflation will stay over 10 % with deductions for demand, input costs and undertakings ( Resource and Trust Company Limited, 2011 ) .

Competitiveness In The Discount House Sub- Sector

The price reduction house bomber sector is merely a little sector in a big fiscal sector with merely a few participants who are about of equal standing ; hence, there is strong competition among the services suppliers which have led to invention, efficiency and the ascent of competitory advantage by the participants. The proviso of specialised individualized services allowable within the range of the price reduction house guidelines. Example is the personal pension program developed by Consolidated Discount Limited which was created as a manner of fixing clients to be less vulnerable to loss of gaining capacity after retirement ( Consolidated Discount Limited, 2009 ) .

Besides Associated Discount House Limited in concurrence with the Debt Management Office ( DMO ) of Nigeria organized an consciousness seminar on 12 February, 2009 to conflagrate the involvement of retail investors both local, international and in the diasporas in Federal Government of Nigeria Bonds ( Associated Discount House Limited, 2009 ) .

Opportunities In The Discount House Sub- Sector

Without challenging, there are chances in Discount Houses concerns ( if non many ) which gives them an border over Bankss and other specialized Bankss.

As earlier inferred, price reduction houses are allowed to offer certain alone fiscal services which puts them about in the same base as Bankss and even much more but they can non be referred to as Bankss and one of the grounds is because there is lower limit paid up capital imposed on the regular Bankss which sums to N25,000,000,000.00 ( Twenty five billion naira ) merely at any point in clip. For the price reduction houses sub sector, the lower limit paid up capital shall be N1,000,000,000.00 ( One billion naira ) merely or as may be prescribed by Central Bank of Nigeria from clip to clip ( Revised Guidelines for Discount Houses, 2008 ) . There is a revised Guideline for twelvemonth 2008 which besides relaxes the ownership of Discount Houses to now include non-financial establishments and persons. This alteration provides the chance for Discount Houses to turn their capital base to enable them to research new countries of concern and hike their profitableness ( Kakawa Discount House, 2009 ) .

Discount Houses have ample support from the Central Bank of Nigeria being the loaner of last resort installation.

Discount Houses are able to offer extremely attractive pricing on Treasury Bills and other riskless authorities debt instruments because of the important grants available to them from the Central Bank of Nigeria

Discount Houses are tightly regulated hence danger signals ( if any ) are easy noticeable.

Bing specialist establishments, Discount Houses are proactive in pull offing money market trends to the advantage of their clients.

Unlike other sedimentation taking establishments, the fiscal assets acquired by Discount Houses are of the finest quality with small or no recognition hazard ( Express Discount House Limited ) .

Menaces To The Discount House Sub- Sector

Naturally the price reduction house bomber sector is faced with its ain menaces and challenges as from origin, price reduction houses operated in an environment that could termed as unusual or unnatural. There was a distress state of affairs in the banking sector which was at its extremum and most Bankss patronized price reduction houses in order to guarantee the safety of their financess, but with the return of methodicalness and composure, price reduction houses backing by Bankss reduced. Rather, the interbank and foreign exchange markets seem to hold provided more attractive trading options for the Bankss, to the hurt of the price reduction houses.

Licensing of extra price reduction houses to do the entire figure of price reduction houses 5 proved to be a challenge as it had an inauspicious consequence on the entire turnover of the price reduction house bomber sector, following the initial roar from the twelvemonth of operations of 1993 where entire plus stood at N9,600,000,000.00 ( Nine billion, six hundred million naira ) merely which dropped significantly to N3,400,000,000.00 ( Three billion, four hundred million naira ) merely in 1995 following the entryway of a new entrant into the market. With these occurrences, licensing of new price reduction houses might still impact on the sub-sector further negatively.

Their narrow range of operations has besides proven to be a major challenge for the Discount House bomber sector being a specialized bank is suppressing a batch of chances for enlargement ( Chartered Institute of Bankers of Nigeria, 2010 ) .

Finally, from the origin, price reduction houses had the sole right to carry on Open Market Operations minutess ( OMO ) . Open Market Operations ( OMO ) is an indirect pecuniary policy technique that is used to command the degree of money supply. It involves the sale/purchases of money market instruments in the unfastened market ; these instruments being Nigerian exchequer measures ( Ezirim and Enefaa, 2010 ) . With the Central Bank of Nigeria opening up the window to Bankss every bit good, the price reduction house bomber sector lost the exclusive right of Open market Operations.


In malice of all the challenges and menaces faced by the Discount House bomber sector, the Discount Houses are still are really critical portion of Nigeria as an emerging economic system and merely the bing participants in the market are non plenty to maintain a balanced fiscal sector and the economic system as a whole.

In the visible radiation of the fact that the Central Bank of Nigeria as the major regulator supports on revisiting and revising the guidelines of the Discount House bomber sector, there is hope yet still for growing, enlargement, invention and upper limit end product which should promote new participants to take part.

Part 2



Scheme is a program or design of what an administration intends to accomplish and how to travel about it. Artto, Kujala, Dietrich and Martinsuo ( 2008 ) define scheme as a house ‘s end to achieve a coveted place in its competitory external environment. This is in line with Kenneth Andrew ( 1987 ) school of idea that views scheme from the corporate angle where he views corporate scheme as the nature of determinations a company takes which reveals its short and long term ends, how it plans to travel about accomplishing these ends and how its result will impact all stakeholders and community at big. There is a popular belief that an organisation that fails to be after or strategise, plans to neglect and Goold ( 1996 ) goes on farther to portion his ain position when he says that full-blown concerns can easy go sedate and immune to alter. Normally this behavior leads them to a diminution and the lone manner it can recover its place is through scheme or alteration in scheme. This resolve normally involve the chase, achievement, and care of competitory advantage in its industry ( Varadarajan and Clark cited in Morgana and Strong, 2003 ) .

Whittington ( 2001:10 ) summarises it all when he says scheme is all about ‘thinking better and believing otherwise ‘ and claims that a good scheme means making something different from every other individual. But there are booby traps to scheme as Mintzberg ( 1994 ) puts frontward the inquiry ; ‘is a clime conducive

to strategic be aftering needfully one conducive to effectual strategic thought and moving? He claims that there are underlying issues which affects the ability of programs to do head manner and emphasizes that these issues are neither proficient nor analytical but instead human ( Abel and Hammond cited in Mintzberg, 1994 ) . But Smith and Reese ( 1999 ) argue that every bit long as there is a tantrum or alliance between operational elements and concern so there should be no booby traps where he defines tantrum as ‘the grade to which operational elements match the concern scheme ‘ .

Alternate Approaches to Strategy:

Similarities and Differences

There are assorted attacks to scheme but Whittington ( 2000 ) classifies scheme into four attacks: the Classical, Evolutionary, Processualist and Systemic. He farther analyses each attack as follows:

The classical attack sees scheme as a procedure of rational deliberation, computation and analysis, intended to accomplish long-run benefit and that good planning is what it takes to get the hang internal and external environments.

The Evolutionary attack analyses scheme from the point of position that rational long term planning is frequently irrelevant and that successful schemes merely emerge as the procedure of natural choice.

The Processualist attack sees long term planning as fundamentally unpointed, but they are non excessively pessimistic about the destiny of concerns that do non somehow optimize environmental chances as they see inability or failure to believe up and transport out the perfect strategic program is barely traveling to present any serious competitory disadvantage.

Finally the Systemic attack to scheme proposes that the aims and patterns of scheme depend on the peculiar societal system in which strategy- devising takes topographic point in other words organisations strategic planning is fundamentally influenced and controlled by the societal system in which it operates. Meaning the demographic scene of the organisation ‘s environment needs to be taken into consideration when strategizing.

In analysing the similarities and differences of these attacks, their manner or procedures and their terminal consequence is paramount.

In comparing the classical and evolutionary attacks to scheme, Whittington ( 2001:2 ) posits “ profit maximization as the natural result of strategy-making ” . This he made in mention from the point of position of their terminal consequence which is net income or return on capital. These attacks associate profitableness with scheme and believe the higher the degree of scheme employed, the higher and better the net income generated. This position is shared by ( Friedman and Baumol cited in Vining and Meredith, 2000 ) where they argue that the lone appropriate end or scheme in any administration is to maximise net income and that any other end is considered inappropriate.

As much the classical and evolutionary attacks are similar in footings of net income maximization being their end ; they differ in manner and procedures. The classical attack adopts a manner of rational planning ( Whittington, 2000:11 ) whereas the evolutionary attack lacks assurance in rational planning where they argue that no affair the degree or strength of scheme, the result is normally driven by market dictates and how good a director is able to execute and that ‘investing in long term schemes can be counter productive ‘ ( Whittington, 2000: 19 ) .

In this case, the evolutionary attack can be compared with the Processualist attack to scheme in that they besides do non believe in rational planning. This position is shared by Peppard 1995, who argues that in a claim to deriving competitory advantage, direction develop schemes with apparently superiority above others which is merely a manner of them being seen to be making something and non needfully trust to accomplish anything by their schemes. By this claim, peppard attempts to demo that rational planning is merely an act which is non needfully relevant to the overall public presentation of the administration but it is something that is done for the corporate image. His position is supported by Cyert and March ( cited in Whittington 2000:22 ) who argue that houses can be after in such a manner that major scheme Sessionss could be cut off and yet still present merely plenty to maintain everyone satisfied.

Although the processualist attack is similar to the evolutionary attack in footings of procedures and manner, that where all their similarity ends because in footings of result.

The Processualist attack can be compared with the systemic attack of scheme whose school of idea sees non merely net income maximization but other results as a an terminal consequence of scheme ( Whittington 2000: 21 – 27 ) . Werther Jr and Chandler ( 2005 ) argue that houses are continuously appraised in footings of both the fiscal and societal benefits that result from their corporate actions or schemes. The systemic attack proposes that ‘firms differ harmonizing to the societal and economic systems in which they are embedded ‘ ( Whittington, 2000:27 ) thereby sing scheme as being guided and controlled by the environmental forces in which they operate. In the same spirit, the processualist advice against ‘striving after unachievable ideal of rational fluid action, but to accept and work with the universe as it is ‘ ( Whittington, 2000:21 ) .

Finally, the systemic attack can be compared with the classical attack in that they both believe in rational planning and do ‘retain religion in the capacity of organisations to be after frontward and to move efficaciously within their environment ‘ ( Whittington 2000:26 ) . This position is shared by Casadesus-Masanell and Ricart, ( 2010 ) when they opined that ‘strategy is a high-order pick that has profound deductions on competitory outcomesaˆ¦aˆ¦.. and scheme should incorporate commissariats against a scope of environmental eventualities, whether they take topographic point or non ‘ and Stallwood ( 1996 ) maintains that scheme is necessary but insists that whatever scheme is used must be appropriate and simple plenty for it to go adopted by an organisation without needfully holding to alter after its initial use.


Scheme can be seen as a ‘means of avoiding [ possibly ] dearly-won and detrimental warfare ‘ ( University of Leicester, 2009:90 ) and it is rather clear that all the attacks of scheme have their ain benefits even though they are similar and besides dissimilar in their ain alone ways. Therefore which of all time method adopted should be seen to add to an organisation ‘s public presentation and must be punctually analysed and deliberated on guaranting it is in alliance with the organisation ‘s ends and aims before acceptance.