Theoretical Framework and Related Studies Essay

Foreign Literature Tobias Dick, researcher at the German Cancer Research Center, found that cells can produce their own anti-oxidants – glutathione – which fight off oxidants. According to Hagen, research on the natural processes of aging, and steps that could slow it or improve health until near the end of life, are of growing importance. Low glutathione levels, according to anti-aging research from the New England Journal of Medicine, can increase the risk of a heart attack. Dr. Eric Topol (MD), from the New England Journal of Medicine, reported this discovery in USA Today in October 2003.

Unfortunately, the pharmaceutical industry probably didn’t see any opportunities to rake in lots of money by selling this natural antioxidant, so these studies haven’t become breaking news. But taking this antioxidant is a great idea if you wish to reverse disease and reverse aging for a rejuvenated and long life (many anti-aging doctors agree). Local Literature Related Studies According to scientific studies, Glutathione is considered as to be the most powerful of the body’s self-generated antioxidants. It acts as the strongest anti-cancer agent in our system.

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Glutathione is found in almost all living cells. The liver, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, and the lens and cornea, have the highest concentrations in the body. The liver is the reservoir of Glutathione. It is therefore important to protect our liver for it to continuously do its job of detoxification and glutathione production. Scientific research has shown that individuals who have low levels of Glutathione are susceptible to chronic illness. Levels of Glutathione are further reduced by continual stress upon the immune system such as illness, infection, and environmental toxins.

A lowered immune system significantly increases the risk of chronic illness and disease. This is a vicious cycle. While you need Glutathione for a productive immune system, a weakened immune system severely hampers the production of Glutathione in the liver, leaving us susceptible to unrestrained cell disintegration from oxidative stress, free radicals and to infections even cancer. Likewise, the liver gets overloaded with toxins, making it damaged and unable to do its job of detoxification. Glutathione and Aging are directly related.

According to the world’s leading expert on glutathione (GSH), Dr. Jimmy Gutman, everybody experiences a drop in GSH level related to age. Research also shows that Glutathione levels, steadily decline by 8% to 12% per decade, beginning at the age of 20. Therefore, increasing our body’s glutathione reserves and making our body manufacture more glutathione will delay aging by quenching free radicals like hydroxyl and nitrogen radicals (Free radicals – an atom or group of atoms that has at least one unpaired electron and is therefore unstable and highly reactive).

In animal tissues, free radicals can damage cells and are believed to accelerate the progression of cancer, cardiovascular disease and age-related disease. 1. Why is Glupa better? Glupa is a combination of two of the most powerful and most versatile antioxidant, anti-aging and whitening ingredients, glutathione and papaya that protects from aging, boosts immune system, detoxifies, aids proper digestion of nutrients and brings out a healthier, younger and whiter you. For twice the protection, Glupa gives you better value for money gram for gram. 2. What are the other important benefits of Glutathione? Glutathione protects the integrity of red blood cells ? Glutathione is involved in maintaining normal brain function. ? Glutathione is one of the most potent anti-viral agents known. ? Glutathione is involved in cell differentiation and slows the aging process Conceptual Framework Physiologic variations of blood glutathione concentrations might also add to interindividual variability. Our results showed no significant gender difference in young healthy subjects, as reported previously. We found decreased GSH and total glutathione concentrations in elderly subjects (;75 years of age) as described previously.

Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time an increase in GSSG concentration in elderly subjects. Further investigations of GSSG in elderly people would contribute to the understanding of the pathogenic role of oxidative stress in the course of aging. In conclusion, CZE is rapid, precise, and specific for GSH and GSSG measurement in whole blood. This assay requires only a small amount of biologic sample and brief sample preparation and thus could be used for routine measurement of glutathione concentrations, even in pathologic conditions where the GSH/GSSG is altered.

Figure 1. Typical electrophore grams of a whole blood sample (A) and an aqueous calibrator (B). Separation took place in 75 mmol/L boric acid and 25 mmol/L bis-Tris (pH 8. 4) at 20 kV. The analyte concentrations were 20. 6 ?mol/L and 2. 2 ?mol/L for GSH and GSSG, respectively, in the blood sample and 40 ?mol/L each in the calibrator. Chapter 3 Methodology Sampling Technique Although both GSH and GSSG occur in tissues, GSH is by far the predominant form. Greater than 99. 5% of tissue “total glutathione” (i. e. , GSH + GSSG, in GSH equivalents) is in the form of GSH.

Since GSH readily oxidizes nonenzymatically and because it is a good substrate of ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (as is also GSSG), biological samples must be acidified quickly to reduce oxidation of GSH to GSSG and to mixed disulfides, and also to inactivate?-glutamyl transpeptidase. Glutathione oxidizes rapidly at pH values greater than 7. Acid treatment inactivates ??glutamyl transpeptidase which catalyzes the following reactions that decrease the levels of both GSH and GSSG. GSH + amino acid = ?-Clu-amino acid + CysH-Gly (transpeptidation) GSH + H2O Clu + CysH-Cly (hydrolysis)

GSH + GSH = ?-Clu-GSH + CysH-Gly (autotranspeptidation) Tissues that have high levels of ?-glutamyl transpeptidase include kidney, pancreas, and the Epithelia of small intestine, choroid plexus, and biliary ductules. Validity of Questionnaire Studies have shown that people with the highest levels of GSH routinely live past 100 and live both long and strong. GSH appears to be capable of preventing chronic diseases like hypertension, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, cataracts, hearing loss and others that can be prevented, controlled or reversed through eliminating and healing the damage done by free radicals.

According to research, GSH is a free radical quencher and levels can be easily improved. Research studies done Dr. Calvin Lang and researchers at the University of Louisville on mosquitoes and then duplicated at the Montreal General Research Institute in Canada on mice, showed that GSH increased lifespans on the mice by 30 to 38% and on mosquitoes by 50 to 100%. Their success prompted studies on humans. Dr. Helle Andersen, and colleagues at Odense University in Denmark, compared GSH in centenarians, age 100 to 105, and people age 60 to 79.

Their findings were that GSH levels were higher in the healthy and active centenarians. The centenarians in the study group, who had the highest levels of GSH, were also the healthiest and most active. Another research study that lasted for five years on women aged 60 to 103, found that high GSH levels were characteristic of long lived women. GSH appears able to super charge the immune system. In the same basic free radical quenching way it improves life spans, GSH slows degenerative diseases.

Research studies found low GSH levels increase the risk of chronic disease and poor health while high levels are associated with fewer illnesses. Glutathione is made by the body and isn’t in foods but you can boost your GSH levels by eating glutathione peroxidase rich foods like, avocado, asparagus, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, garlic, kale, raw eggs, spinach, tomatoes the spice turmeric (cur cumin) and fresh unprocessed meats. The whole conversion process from foods to GSH is quite complicated. You can find more information by doing a search using GSH precursors, and

GSH rich foods. I’ve listed three sources that extensive information. The nutritional supplements alpha lipoid acid (ALA), N-acetyl cysteine, melatonin, bilberry extract and grape seed extract can also boost your GSH. There are only two precursors to GSH. Whey protein and raw egg whites Cooking or even mixing the egg whites destroys the precursor proteins. GSH supplements are available at most health food stores, pharmacies and many super markets. Brands can vary in potency and quality but most research indicates that 80% of the supplement is absorbed by the body. Data Gathering technique

Dr. Joe McCord, a co-author of the study, commented, “The results of this study may change how we view aging and the factors that impact healthy aging. Notably, glutathione, which is of particular interest to many disease researchers, was increased more than 300 percent with Protandim. Glutathione plays a key role in the immune system and when glutathione levels drop, a person’s ability to fight disease also decreases. In addition to the findings on glutathione, the study also shows that Protandim delivers an antioxidant benefit to the body that exceeds those provided by vitamins C and E. McCord added, “Contrary to popular belief, our bodies don’t actually rely upon the intake of vitamins, such as C and E, to maintain proper antioxidant balance; rather we utilize a complex network of antioxidant enzymes to maintain health and protect against oxidative stress.

Oxidative stress is damaging to our bodies and is a major contributor to aging, weakened immune function, and over 200 diseases. Protandim reduces oxidative stress by enhancing the body’s entire network of antioxidant enzymes. The study was conducted by scientists at the University of Colorado Denver and Ochsner Medical Center. The natural ingredients in Protandim were specifically chosen based upon their ability to cause the body to produce and up-regulate its natural network of antioxidant enzymes, including SOD and CAT. Protandim has been formulated using high quality, potent natural plant extracts processed under proprietary technologies. It therefore provides powerful antioxidant protection against oxidative stress. Statistical Treatment of the Data

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